Tuesday, March 12, 2019

Legionnaire`s disease

Since the credit of legi championlla two decades ago, a significant amount of in motleyation has hoard concerning the microbiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, control, and therapy of infections caused by these organisms. The hail of species in the genus legionella has increased dramatic tout ensembley. legionella is considered to be responsible for 213% of shimmys of union-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization (Brieman and Butler, 1998).The various legionella species can cause two distinct disorders a severe form of pneumonia known as Legionnaire unsoundness or a little wicked, influenza-like infirmity known as Pontiac fever, which is generally recognized only during those outbreaks in which a cluster of cases of Legionella pneumonia sparks an epidemiologic investigation that uncovers these less serious infections.MicrobiologyThe organism is a Gram-negative bacillus. There be currently 42 described species of Legionellae representing 64 serogroups in th e family (Benson and Fields, 1998). Legionellaceae and the genus Legionella. The phenotypic characteristics of Legionellae argon defined by growth requirements, and biochemical characteristics including fatty acid analysis and ubiquinone analysis, protein profiles, scratch analysis, serology, monoclonal antibodies, and molecular techniques (DNA-DNA hybridization).L. pneumophila is a facultative intracellular pathogen that invades and replicates indoors independent protozoa (i.e. amoeba) and mammalian cells (Benson and Fields, 1998). Within natural environments, L. pneumophila can persist as a free-living microbe, but it replicates exclusively as an intracellullar parasite within amoeba. L. pneumophila causes Legionnaires disease by replication in alveolar macrophages and monocytes.During infection the Legionnaires disease bacterium survives and multiplies within a specialized phagosome that is near neutral pH and does not fuse with host lysozymes. Studies show that the regulation of macrophage resistance versus capacity to infection is mediated by specific genetic mechanisms. The induction of cytokines by Legionella can activate immune cells, especially T ally cells. Activated macrophages restrict the growth of Legionella (Segal and Shuman, 1998)EpidemiologyCases can occur in clusters or sporadically from the community or in the hospital setting. The disease is much more universal than previously appreciated with at least(prenominal) 13 000 cases estimated to occur per year in the United States (Brieman and Butler, 1998). There may also be local environmental factors that atomic number 18 important and even so not well defined.Although immunosuppressed endurings and specifically transplant patients seem to hurt a higher risk of developing Legionnaires disease, there ar galore(postnominal) more non-immunosuppressed individuals in the community who may be infected with Legionella. nvestigations into community outbreaks still find cooling towers to be a source of the LegionellaClinical manifestationLuttichau et al(1998) investigated an outbreak of Pontiac fever in children and adults, caused by a contaminated whirlpool. The authors isolated L. pneumophila serogroup OLDA from one of the children and believe that this represents the first describe culture-confirmed case of Pontiac fever. The outbreak was characterized by a short incubation period, influenza-like symptoms, and rapid recoveries, all features typical of Pontiac fever.The median incubation period for the children was shorter (43 h) than for the adults (70 h). The median duration of the illness was 87 h for the children versus 61 h for the adults. The most common symptoms noteworthy by the adults were fever, dizziness, headache, cough, fatigue, arthralgia and abdominal pain. Ear pain and rash were more common in children.DiagnosisThe diagnosis of Legionnaires disease remains troublesome in many hospitals. Serological studies are useful too late for the clinician an d cultures must be incubated for at least 3 days. Legionella urinary antigen assays are useful early in clinical disease but the kits that are currently available only identify patients with disease caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 1. juvenile improvements in the methodology for performing polymerase chain reaction on bronchoalveolar lavage solutions are encouraging (Chiba etal, 1998)TreatmentAntimicrobial agents generally considered clinically effective for Legionella infections include macrolides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and rifampins. In a study several new antimicrobial agents with in-vitro activities against Legionellae that were found better than those of erythromycin included were a new rifampin-like drug, rifapentine, dalfopristin-quinupristin, and a new ketolide (HMR3647).The advantages of the quinolone agents include bactericidal activity against Legionella and a lengthen post-antibiotic effect whereas erythromycin is only inhibitory. In an attachmental stud y utilise HL-60 cells to evaluate new macrolides, Stout et al (1998)documented that the most active inhibitors of L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication were (in order of activity) azithromycin, erythromycin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin and clarithromycin.In a recent editorial, Edelstein (1998) suggested that azithromycin or one of the more active fluoroquinolones should be used in preference to erythromycin for the treatment of Legionnaires disease in immunocompromised patients, based on their greater in-vitro activity as well as their better pharmacodynamic properties. In addition to producing a potentially better outcome, these agents allow often improve patient compliance because of fewer side-effects and the shorter duration of therapy.Conclusion defileions caused by Legionella spp. are a significant cause of morbidity and occasionally mortality. The projected number of cases of infection caused by Legionella spp. are much greater than those reported to CDCs surveillanc e system, indicating both underdiagnosis and under-reporting.Hopefully, new information concerning the molecular biology and pathogenesis will provide a better understanding of infection caused by these organisms. youthful studies suggest that the newer macrolides and newer fluoroquinolones are the optimal agents for these organisms.References1 Benson RF, Fields BS. Classification of the genus Legionella. Semin Respir Infect 1998 1390-99. A comprehensive update of the microbiology and tetonomy of Legionellae2 Breiman RF, Butler JC. Legionnaires disease clinical, epidemiological, and public health perspectives. Semin Respir Infect 1998 1384-893 Segal G, Shuman HA. How is the intracellular heap of the Legionella pneumophila phagosome determined? Trends Microbiol 1998 6253-255.4 Luttichau HR, Vinther C, Uldum SA, Moller J, Faber M, Jensen J. An outbreak of Pontiac fever among children followers use of a whirlpool. Clin Infect Dis 1998 261374-1378.5 Chiba Y, Okamoto H, Nagatomo A, Ku nikare H, Watanabe . Legionnaires disease diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage. Int Med 1998 37153-156.6 Stout JE, Arnold B, Yu VL. Activity of azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and erythromycin against Legionella species by intracellular susceptibility testing in HL-60 cells. J Antimicrob Chemother 1998 41289-2917 Edelstein PH. Antimicrobial chemotherapy for Legionnaires disease time for a change. Ann Intern Med 1998 129328-330.

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