Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Grace Hopper Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Grace Hopper - Assignment Example She would become an employee of the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation. Hopper made valuable contributions in the development of programming languages and applications for the UNIVAC computer. She developed a compiler which helps to act as an interface between machine language and human language. This revolutionary accomplishment now forms the basis of modern programming languages and applications. It helped to create the basic syntax for coding applications. Hopper would invent the term â€Å"computer bug† when a real moth was found to be trapped in the UNIVAC computer (Beyer, 69). Hopper’s greatest contribution was the development of the COBOL which became the standard blueprint for modern programming languages. COBOL was easily understood and applied by computer programmers. It uses English language syntax as a means of developing efficient and effective applications. Hopper made valuable contributions in creating standards for programming languages. These standards have led to the immense proliferation and development of applications. Grace Hopper will always be acclaimed for making computer technologies accessible to the general public. Her valuable research now forms the basis of modern applications and

Monday, October 28, 2019

Veronica Aunsionwu Essay Example for Free

Veronica Aunsionwu Essay Veronica Aunsionwu, founder of The Lord’s Word on Healing Ministry and author of several books on overcoming infertility, would like to announce the creation of her newest website, Beautifulandpregnanant. com. This website promotes her new books, Woman, You Are Not Infertile, volumes one and two. These books give practical advice from the Word of God about difficulties becoming pregnant, and what one can do to overcome these difficulties through trust and prayer. Ms. Aunsionwu feels called by God to share what she has learned through years of study and self-experience regarding problems in reproduction and the miracles God can bring to people who will believe in Him and call on His name for a child of their own. In addition to the announcement of the two new books by Ms. Aunsionwu, there is also an announcement of a five-part e-course that can be ordered for free from beautifulandpregnant. com. This course will go over the basics of the two new books, and it will give all those who are interested a glimpse of the information that Ms. Aunsionwu has so carefully complied for those who so desperately desire a child of their own. Beautifulandpregnant. com is full of excerpts from the two new books, and it also offers pertinent Bible verses and stories of success to inspire and encourage all visitors to the site. As both volumes of Woman, You Are Not Infertile are e-books, they can be bought and downloaded from beautifulandpregnant. com in mere minutes. If one does choose to download the volumes, there is a special offer of four dollars off when both are purchased together, and there are two free gifts available as well. These free e-books will help with naming your baby and feeling your best during pregnancy. There is a 60-day guarantee with purchase, and the free gifts are yours to keep. Come, let Ms. Aunsionwu’s interpretation of God’s Word encourage and strengthen you on your quest to bear a child. Beautifulandpregnant. com is well worth your visit!

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Quotes on Catcher in the Rye :: essays research papers

Which African nation, South Africa or Nigeria, will have greater difficulty overcoming problems that stem from its colonial legacy? Why?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  South Africa will have a harder time overcoming its colonial legacy than Nigeria for a multitude of reasons. The first of many reasons, only three that I will touch on are as follows; the ways in which the settlers changed the beliefs of the African peoples, the second is how they cultivated the land the aboriginal people lived on and the third and final reason is the monetary value they used, and how they dispersed it to the Africans.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When the settlers settled on the South African continent they did not know much of anything the African people believed in. As a matter of fact they knew nothing at all. The aboriginal civilization had a belief in numerous gods, a polytheistic, religion. The settlers believed in one god, Jesus. This alone was a drastic change for the â€Å"savage† people to abide by. Those who did not follow the religion were punished and sought out by the new governing body that was England. These punishments were harsh and usually resulted in death or lashings. The Africans learned quickly not to openly pray to or speak of any other god than Jesus. Amounting with the beatings any type of pay or food that they may earn for working would be rationed or even taken away completely.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The second of the three reasons being touched on is that of the land. The English wanted to make money off of this continent of â€Å"ill cultured† people. So they put them to work and took spices and other valuables from them and sold them throughout the civilized nations. So in this adventure they built communities for their own armies and nobles to over see the construction and operations of business. They did not want to branch off and make South Africa a livable places for the nobles of England just a money spot to indulge on the less educated Africans. In doing so they disrupted the land and habitat that the Africans were used to and caused many diseases that they weren’t immune too.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Finally the money that was given to and taken from the Africans was out of proportion. The money made in that day and age from the Africans was monolithic. They were not of the impression that they were getting the raw end of the deal because the English, although showing signs of tyranny did serve and treat the Africans well at times.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

The Problem with Evil. Essay -- essays research papers

Arevalo 1 Michael Arevalo Philosophy/Extra Credit 02-03-02 The Problem With Evil The Problem With Evil refers to the statement; "No evil happens to a good person in this life or after death". The question at hand refers to the statement being accurate or not. Depending on how you define the words; â€Å"good†, and â€Å"person†, this statement may be construed as inaccurate or accurate. We must first define the words â€Å"good†, and â€Å"person†. The American Heritage defines â€Å"good† as being; (1a) â€Å"Virtuous; Valid or True†. It also defines â€Å"person† as; (2a) â€Å"Self; the personality of a human being†. However the Dictionary also has these alternative definitions: good – (1b) â€Å"Genuine; Real†: person – (2b) â€Å"the living body of a human being†. If you are to believe definition (2a), that there is more to a person than the physical body, our statement in question could be considered accurate. The thought or notion to be â€Å"true†, and or the â€Å"personality of a human being† is a concept. These concepts are forever true or changeless (eternal). Our ability to become aware of these concepts may illustrate somet...

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Human Resource Planning Essay

The process that connects an organization’s strategic plan with its human resource needs is called human resource planning. The process ensures that staffing needs are addressed to achieve the organization’s objectives. Human resource planning is important because it helps an organization maintain a competitive edge and retain employees. Human resource planning determines the supply and demand of employees, according to the needs and wants of the business and its customers. The internal and external environment has an impact on the consideration of human resource planning. For instance, internal impacts are promotions, transfers, or firings, and external impacts can be changes in technology, the economy, or the industry. The competence and qualification of current and future employees and their career paths are more factors to consider when developing a human resource plan. These impacts can affect the staffing and human resource planning processes depending on the need s for a company to remain successful. Human resource planning is important and ongoing because of both internal and external environmental changes. Planning and Strategic Development and Implementation Human resource planning is identifying present and future needs of an organization to reach its goals (Obeidat, 2012). Human resource planning also involves predicting the demand and supply for employees, considering the business needs, and strategies for development and employment to meet requirements (Obeidat, 2012). The results will provide an analysis of human resource supply and future demand, which will identify gaps and most likely include staffing. Therefore, having knowledge of the goals and expectations of the company, can identify methods to reach these goals and track its progress. Planning in this manner allows a company to link resources with business performance. The results will identify the required number of qualified and competent candidates and this will help the business meet its goals and objectives. For instance, human resource planning and staffing connect by addressing the company’s direction, skills, knowledge, and abilities needed to follow a certain path. It also assesses the current competencies within the company and the gap between the direction and requirements to succeed. Description of the Staffing Process The eight elements of the staffing process are human resource planning, recruiting, selection, orientation, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation, and employment decisions (Plunkett, Allen, & Attner, 2013). Human resource planning involves assessing current employees, forecasting future demands, and constructing plans to add or transfer employees (Plunkett, Allen, & Attner, 2013). Recruiting involves looking for qualified people within or outside the company for vacant positions (Plunkett, Allen, & Attner, 2013). Selection is interviewing and testing candidates and hiring the best applicant(s). Orientation is when new employees learn about the fellowship. Training and development is when new employees learn their jobs and expand their skills. The performance appraisal is the origination of the touchstones for judging the workplace of employees (Plunkett, Allen, & Attner, 2013). Compensation is generating pay and benefits for each position. Employment decisions include promotions, demotions, transfers, layoffs, and firings (Plunkett, Allen, & Attner, 2013). Elements and Activities The proper planning, recruiting, and selecting of staff is an ongoing process. The hiring process is just the beginning of staffing. The human resource department must retain employees through training and development, performance appraisal, compensation, and employment decisions. The first step in human resource planning is the staffing process. The human resource planning process starts with a job analysis. A job analysis describes the skills, knowledge, and abilities required to perform each position. The job description will include what, how, and why employees perform his or her duties. It specifies minimum acceptable qualifications a candidate must possess to do the job effectively. A human resource inventory comes after the completion of the job analysis. The human resource inventory will categorize the needs and wants of the position. Afterwards, a human resource forecast is created to anticipate future demands for each position based on the plans, goals and objectives of the organization. Last, the forecast and inventory are compared to decide whether staffing needs will come from internal or external candidates. Read more:  Essay on Human Resource Planning Activities and Planning, Development, & Implementation The primary influence in the use of a company’s resources is the mission and vision of the organization. The mission and vision of the business provide the reason for the use of the resource. An effective and efficient business, strategic and business plans specify how its resources are managed and utilized. The most important resources a business must effectively use are: technology to create a product or deliver the service, the finances to pay for the requirements, and the skills and talents used by human beings to complete the job (Soberg, 2011). The business specifies the technology it needs to achieve the mission of the organization. The required technology will depend on the amount of product or service the company wishes to provide. The strategic plans and vision will be a factor in this decision to ensure it aligns with the goals of the company (Sober, 2011). The best fit for the organization and its mission will come down to the industry and what is currently utilize d. The financial aspect of the equation will specify how to produce money, control money, and foresee the revenue and expenses. The budget for a smooth, successful business operation will rely on the need for achievement in regards to the goals and objectives. The decision must include the cost of the entire operations including maintenance. For instance, the expenses cover purchasing, maintaining and adapting technology and compensating employees. The human benefactor is the knowledge, skills, and abilities utilized to generate and carry the product and service. People are an organization’s largest resource because products and services could not be managed, created, or delivered without the knowledge, skills, and abilities of human beings (Soberg, 2011). For example, without any assistance from human beings, technology and money cannot be utilized. The effective use of human resources assist companies in attracting the right employees, expand the knowledge, skills, and abilitie s of these employees, and keep the employees within the organization. Conclusion Human resource planning is the prediction of future business and environmental needs of a given organization. Human resource planning estimates the number of people available to work for future purposes. It strives to identify proper staffing required to perform organizational activities. Human resource planning is an ongoing process which starts with  objectives, move toward an analysis of resources and ends at evaluation of the human resource plan. Human resource planning compares the present and future status of the organization. The results identify what changes are necessary to meet goals. Human resource planning is vital so companies can meet their objectives and gain a competitive edge over its competition. The proper prediction of employment needs is important. An organization must foresee staffing issues beforehand, just as they predict potential threats in the industry that can impact on overall business success. Employee performance is a direct link to the success of the company. Therefore, a company that is not able to achieve goals is the result of workplace failure. Nevertheless, human resource planning is important to ensure the organization does not hire the wrong people or neglect to predict changes in staffing needs. The only way an organization can ensure employees have the skills, knowledge, and abilities the business needs to succeed is by planning for human resource needs. A human resource plan goes hand in hand with the companies plan to determine the resources it needs to achieve the goals. References Obeidat, B.Y. (2012, October). The Relationship between Human Resource Information System (HRIS) Functions and Human Resource Management (HRM) Functionalities. Journal of Management Research, 4(4), . doi:10.5296/jmr.v4i4.2262 Plunkett, W. R., Allen, G. S., & Attner, R.F (2013). Management: Meeting and exceeding customer expectations (10th ed.). Mason, OH : South-Western Cengage Learning. Soberg, A. (2011). The Link Between Strategic Planning and Human Resource Planning. Retrieved from

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

buy custom Learning Objectives essay

buy custom Learning Objectives essay The trainee has to know the following: How to undertake a personal wound care, clean the wound properly, apply the necessary medication, use various menus in the computer. Select an appropriate file for the documentation of the patients details such as: age, severity of the wound, and medication. Having basic skills in health care delivery, with a minimum of academic knowledge in secondary level health science, shall be a requirement to understand the basics of the task performance, and to be able to follow them precisely and in a careful manner Performance The trainee is required to gain the following knowledge: Properly nurse a wound Correctly document patients details using Microsoft Excel. The details shall include: name, age, phone number, and prescribed medication information How to take care of patients through keeping management records,, wound treatment, providing feedback to wound situation, administration of first aid, supervision of drug administration, and assistance to wounded patients. The trainee is expected to attend all of the safety seminars so as to acquit themselves with the vital precaution measures. Buy custom Learning Objectives essay

Monday, October 21, 2019

Grandparents and an Online Degree Program Essays

Grandparents and an Online Degree Program Essays Grandparents and an Online Degree Program Essay Grandparents and an Online Degree Program Essay When many of us were young, our grandparents – in our estimation – could have been anywhere from 100 to 150 years old. We had no concept of ages; only that our grandparents were elderly people that hailed from another generation. With people living longer and much healthier lives, the grandparent of today does not resemble the grandparent of years’ past. In fact, grandparents are only grandparents in name and position only; many are young, vibrant, working people in the prime of their lives. Age no longer defines us as it once did, and many people – regardless of their age or their â€Å"place† in the family – are pursuing goals that were once reserved for the very young. A college education, as a matter of fact, was once something that most of us earned as young people in our twenties. In fact, there were some generations in which a college education was largely a male pursuit. That generation has now caught up with the generation where a college education is genderless and ageless; and they are jumping on the bandwagon to earn what is rightfully theirs to earn. While there may be little time in the day for a round trip to a campus that may be logistically inconvenient – as well as the time necessary to sit in class – there is the possibility for people of all ages to earn an online degree. The Internet has made all things possible; and a college education is no exception. Through an online degree program, people of all ages can simply login to complete all that is required in the class – reading, assignments, projects, and even quizzes and exams. All that is required to complete an online degree is acceptance into an accredited program, a computer with access to the Internet, and the desire to finally earn that college education. :

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Should You Retake the SAT or ACT 3-Step Process

Should You Retake the SAT or ACT 3-Step Process SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips At long last, you get your SAT or ACT scores back, and now you have to make an important decision- do you retake the test and aim for a higher score? What are your chances of improving your score? The answer can get complicated, depending on how many times you've taken it before and what your score target is. Read on to develop the best testing plan for yourself.The decision on whether you should retake the ACT or SAT depends on two main questions: What is your target score? How likely are you to improve your score on the next test? We'll tackle each question one at a time. What's Your SAT/ACT Target Score? Long before you take the SAT or ACT, you should have an exact target score in mind. This score is based entirely on the colleges that you are planning to apply to. It's not the score that other people say you should get. It's not the score that sounds right. This score is mathematically determined by researching the colleges you want to apply to. If you don't calculate this score, you'll be led astray from the study plan that's best for you. You might think a great score is out of reach, or you might be complacent about a lower than average score. Click the following links to download a free guide to calculating your target score. Exclusive Free Bonus: Downloada free step-by-step guide on finding your personal SAT score target or ACT score target. Once you go through these steps, you'll know exactly what score you need to aim for. Don't delay - this is one of the most important steps of SAT/ACT prep. Once you have your target score, compare your score with this target score. How likely are you to improve your score to this level? Here's a set of very general guidelines from my personal experience with thousands of students (we'll be using the 1600 scale of the new SAT): SAT Score ACT Score What do I need to do to get this improvement? Difficulty +0-50 +0-1 Some prep before the test. You might achieve this score improvement just by retaking the test if you did especially poorly last time. Not too hard, especially if you've taken the test just once +50-160 +1-4 Serious prep on a dedicated schedule. You'll need a smart system to figure out where your weaknesses lie and how to improve them. You won't be able to achieve this just through sheer effort. Possible with hard work and smart studying +160-260 +4-7 Very serious prep. You have some major gaps to fill before you start mastering the test. You will benefit from a personal tutor who can spot your weaknesses and teach you strategies. Possible with serious dedication, time, and a great study plan +260-400 +7-10 Dedicated prep for an extended period of time. You will most likely need an excellent 1-on-1 tutor who can teach you the fundamentals and make sure you stay committed. Difficult, but possible for the very motivated. 400+ 10+ Nearly re-education. You have major content gaps from school and need to be taught fundamental content. You'll need hundreds of hours of work. Very difficult. Re-evaluate your target colleges if possible. (if you're using the 2400 scale of the Old SAT, then just multiply each of the range values by 1.5) These are general guidelines and depend heavily on your exact situation. As we'll soon explain, the more you've prepped and the more tests you've taken up to this point, the harder it is to improve your score from here on. If you've taken the test 5 times and prepped hard, improving your test score on the 6th test by 100 points will be difficult. You'll need a completely different approach from you've already tried to make any improvements from this point forward. If you've taken the test several times by this point, you might be worried that colleges will look down on your many test entries. This is a common myth that we're going to bust right now. Myth: Colleges Care How Many Times You've Taken the SAT/ACT. Not true! You might have heard the idea that when colleges see your SAT/ACT scores, they take into account how many tests you've taken. If you've taken 10 tests, they'll wonder what's wrong with you, especially if you don't improve from test to test. The reason this myth exists is that this used to be true. Back in the old days (before 2009), if you took the SAT and applied to college, the College Board always required you to send ALL your scores to every college. If you took the test too many times and didn't improve, the school might potentially look down on this. This system has totally changed.The SAT now uses a system called Score Choice. For the majority of schools, you can choose which test dates you want to report to the school. They'll either take your highest test score in a single setting, or your highest section score from all the tests you send (creating your Superscore). See for yourself: the College Board has a list of over 1,500 colleges and their Score Choice participation. The majority of schools participate in Score Choice, where you can choose which test scores you send. Those that don't are marked by "All Scores" - they require you to send all your scores from the College Board. Notable "All Scores" institutions are the CUNY system and University of California. But even for these "All Scores" institutions, they won't care all that much about your other test scores. All they want to see is your highest test score, because that's all that actually matters to them. Take it straight from the University of California itself, which requires All Scores sent: "For the SAT Reasoning Test, we will focus on the highest total score from a single test date." What about the ACT? The ACT has never required you to submit all your test scores. In fact, you must pay a separate fee for each test score you send to every college, which can end up costing quite a lot. Because the schools will never see any ACT score you don't send them, you're free to send them just your highest score. There are a few schools that require all ACT scores sent, but they're in the far minority. So how many times can you take the SAT or ACT? As many times as you want.What actually matters at the end of the day is your highest score. But for the sake of your wallet, if you stop improving, question why you aren't improving, and find a new prep program that can work better for you. Want to learn more about the SAT but tired of reading blog articles? Then you'll love our free, SAT prep livestreams. Designed and led by PrepScholar SAT experts, these live video events are a great resource for students and parents looking to learn more about the SAT and SAT prep. Click on the button below to register for one of our livestreams today! What Are Your Chances of Improving Your SAT/ACT Score? This is the million dollar question. By now, you should have your SAT target score or ACT target score firmly in mind, and you know you want to improve to that point. Whether you can reachit depends on a few main factors. #1: Did you underperform on the official test, and you know you could have done better? A fluke test happens to the best of us. You might not have been feeling well that day. You might have gotten distracted during a reading passage that was especially difficult. You might have had a family situation that stressed you out the morning of the test. If your official test score is 100 SAT points or 2 ACT points lower than your consistent practice test score, RETAKEthe test. There's a lot of variation from test to test, and chances are very good that if you take the test again, you'll get a better score the second time. I've seen students swing as much as 500 points upward between two tests a month apart, simply because they had a terrible day the first time and knocked the second test out of the park. 2) How many times have you taken the SAT or ACT before? Here are some simple guidelines. Only taken the test once: DEFINITELYtake it again. Both the College Board and the ACTpublish results that show that most students (over 50%) who take the test a second time improve their score. Furthermore, the lower your starting score is, the more likely your second test is to improve. You should try to prep as well as you can, but even if you just take the test, odds are that you'll improve your score. Taken the test twice: Lean towards taking it again. If you prep, you'll have a much better chance at improving your score. Furthermore, because most schools take a Superscore, the chances that you'll improve your Superscore are very good. Taken the test 3 or more times:That depends onthis next question: 3) How much have you already studied, and how did you prep? The less you've prepped before, the more likely you can improve your score. If the only thing to prep before the test was look at the cover of an SAT/ACT book through the storefront window, you can make huge improvements with the right SAT/ACT prep method. If you've spent 400 hours studying, devoured all the SAT/ACT books, and hired a personal tutor for 100 hours, it's a lot harder to improve your score. You'll need to change your study method to have a shot at boosting your score again. If you've prepped a lot already and are unsure of what to study to improve your score, one thing is clear - you need a new approach. If you try what you've been doing with just a little more effort, you'll be disappointed with your results. I've seen hundreds of students come to me frustrated that their score isn't improving, when of course they've been doing the same incorrect things over and over again. Quick Plug: We have the industry's leading online prep program for both SAT prep and ACT prep. The real difference with our program is that we customize your studying to your strengths and weaknesses. Couple that with the country's top instructors and content, and you have what's been called a "life-saver" and "a godsend" by our happy families. Check it out now. What's Next? Now that you know your chances of improving your score, you should have an idea of whether you want to retake the SAT or ACT. In my experience, very few students are lost causes - nearly everyone at this stage can continue to improve their score, with the right prep method. Read this next: Figure out when you should take the SAT or ACT, and what the best test dates are. Check out our leading SAT and ACT prep programs:

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Early americas history Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Early americas history - Essay Example This paper will analyze two of the articles available in the book during a period when slavery was rampant in the south (Johnson, 2012). One of the articles is ‘Plantation rules’ written by Barrow as a code of regulations that he wrote down. The article appears in one of the plantation journals written during a time when slavery of black people was the order of the day. The article presents us with clear picture of the rules that a black slave adhered to and the level of ownership that the owner felt. The document depicts what was happening in the American past at around 1852. Barrow wrote down this article with his black slaves in mind because he expected them to understand precisely his expectations for as long as they worked under him (255-256). From the article, some facts become clear about the period of 1800’s in the United States. During this time, blacks worked for white landowners as slaves. In addition, the owners of land perceived slaves as their proper ty. Therefore, they formulated rules that governed the entire life of the salve. The article highlights the restrictions that the slaves went through on the farms. They worked all day long and had to acquire permission in order to engage in any extra activity. The owner of the slaves controlled their movements. Through this, he intended to ensure that slaves did not interact with other slaves fro m other farms. He was aware of the potential reactions of black slaves. If they met too often and without control from their owners, slaves were likely to stage a rebellion. From the article, a reader realizes that black slaves did not have an opportunity to enjoy their rights as free individuals. They received minimal allowances for their work. They often worked for long hours. In addition, the owner limited the development of relationships of the slaves forbidding them from marrying from a different farm. The article highlights the plight of slaves in the southern states in ancient Americ a. It tells the facts from the owner’s point of view without altering and it presents reliable information of the fate of Negroes who ended up in white farms (258). However, the article does not reveal the story from the slave’s point of view. However, it provides the reader with an opportunity to experience the attitude and power exercised by slave owners in ancient America. The article highlights the core issue that led to racial issues between the whites and blacks. The article is the ‘confession of Nat Turner’ officially published by Ruffin Gray. Gray was the lawyer to Turner, a slave who was responsible for the organization of a slave revolution in one of the southern states, Virginia. Turner had been a slave who could not bear the conditions that surrounded slavery and called upon other slaves to raise a rebellion against the whites who were continually oppressing the slaves and overworking them. Turner’s confession targeted the entire America n public at that time. He was in jail and felt took the responsibility of narrating his reasons and contributions in organizing the revolution. He made his confessions to Gray, the lawyer who published the confession (259). From his account, it becomes evident that slavery in the southern states was very rampant. In addition, the article elaborates how the salves perceived the situation they were going through. Turner claims that he sought to organize a revolt with a divine motivation. He described

Friday, October 18, 2019

English Terrorism Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

English Terrorism Law - Essay Example Such a form of terrorism is called State Terrorism. It would not be wrong to say that 'terrorism' and 'terrorist' are both relative terms. Their meanings differ from people to people, society to society. Therefore it's not surprising that one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter! 'On one point, at least, everyone agrees: terrorism is a pejorative term. It is a word with intrinsically negative connotations that is generally applied to one's enemies and opponents, or to those with whom one disagrees and would otherwise prefer to ignore. 'What is called terrorism , thus seems to depend on one's point of view. Use of the term implies a moral judgment; and if one party can successfully attach the label terrorist to its opponent, then it has indirectly persuaded others to adopt its moral viewpoint.' Hence the decision to call someone or label some organization terrorist' becomes almost unavoidably subjective, depending largely on whether one sympathizes with or opposes the person/group/cause concerned. If one identifies with the victim of the violence, for example, then the act is terrorism. If, however, one identifies with the perpetrator, the violent act is regarded in a more sympathetic, if not positive (or, at the worst, an ambivalent) light; and it is not ter rorism.' [3] The English Legal System: In the United Kingdom; England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Irelands have their own distinct legal system. Among these states there is a considerable difference in laws and their implementation. There are two kinds of laws. The Common laws which has not been clearly defined and is based on customs and traditions is used unless superseded by legislation. On the other hand there is the equity law which consists of a body of rules applied by the courts. The British legal system is not based on Roman law unlike the laws of certain other European countries [17]. However, due to its membership of the European Union, the European Community Law applies to economic and social judgements in the UK. The rulings are usually given by the European Court. There is a lot of literature on the subject of the relationship between EU Law and National Law.A group of competent law makers claim that the EU law is the supreme law of the land. The European law is based on the premise of 'We the People!' How ever, others argue that to evaluate the performance of national courts, adherence to the national constitution is to be strictly observed. [5] The Head of the judiciary in England and Wales is the Lord Chancellor. He has the authority to make all appointments for the magistrates and to the crowns except the highest which is made by the Prime Minister. There are two kinds of courts; criminal courts and civil courts [24]. The Home Secretary is responsible for the criminal justice system in England and Wales. Lastly there are the tribunals, which work in conjunction with courts. 'They are normally

Positive Effects Of The Industrial Revolution On The Lives Of People Case Study

Positive Effects Of The Industrial Revolution On The Lives Of People - Case Study Example The standard of living for some had improved and the society was progressing. The industrial revolution is said to have brought many positive effects in the lives of people. Inventions such as the steam locomotives helped transportation and the increase in agricultural yield helped the farmers. There were many more significant inventions which changed the face of the earth and improved the lives of the masses. However, as it is commonly said that a coin has two sides and so this is also visible here. With the many pros which the industrial revolution brought with itself, it also brought some flaws. It is these flaws which are often highlighted when the industrial revolution is discussed. To begin with, it is claimed that the industrial revolution created a huge gap between the other countries and Britain. Also, this did not only lead to a huge technological gap between the countries but this also created a financial gap between them and Britain. The incomes of the average family were increasing and the people were becoming richer. At this point, sociologists like Marxists claim that the businessmen or the ruling class are exploiting the masses by paying them lesser wages. This causes the standard of living of the workers to actually fall rather than improving. However, as statistics show that people were actually well of in the long run. As soon as the technological change set in the conditions started improving and soon the families were spending more on food, clothing and household goods than ever before 1 Overall, the Industrial Revolution had many good effects. It increased the number of goods and services a nation could produce and supplemented to its wealth. It created jobs for workers and overtime assisted they live better lives. It produced better diets, better accommodation, and cheaper, better clothing.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

(HRM)Globalisation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

(HRM)Globalisation - Essay Example It is recognized through a number of trends such as growing economic integration and liberalization; trade deregulation; convergence of macroeconomic policies; modification of the role and concept of nation state; proliferation of supranational agreements and regulatory bodies; and globalization of information systems 1." Upon looking into the given premise, one might have the idea that the said practice has its positive and negative effects. In this case, if some countries oppose this kind of practice definitely anticipate is negative effects. So, what are these negative effects that they seem to oppose this kind of practice Vandana Shivea (2006) 2, an Indian ecofeminist and scholar, once stated that "globalization along with the support of organizations such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, have created a term more often known as "slave wages". These kinds of wages are not necessarily the result of "unjust" societies, but of the fact that global trade devalues the worth of people's lives and work. While globalization has brought jobs to rural, developing areas such as India where there was previously no employment, these jobs seem to be wolves in sheep's clothing.

The Taika Reform Edicts Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Taika Reform Edicts - Essay Example During this time, the empire experienced great concord with less fractiousness among the people. After a period, common clan names such as Omi, Muraji and Uji took over the titles of Gods and emperors. â€Å"In recent times, however, the names, first of the Gods, and then of the Emperors, have in some cases been separated (from their proper application) and converted into the  Uji  of Omi or  Muraji, [common clan names in Japan]† This separation resulted to some consequences and strong partisan bias among the people in the entire country. The monarchy system was centralized, and the clans seem to be an obstacle to this system hence pushing for decentralization of the ruling system in the Japanese state. This decentralization is in the form of selfish interests by the clans. The minds of people have become unsettled, which has made the government unable to carry on with its functions. Japanese elites such as Muraji 12, Omi 11, Kuni no Moyakko 2 and Tomo no Miyakko 5 came up with a set of their own vassals (Varley, 2003). These vassals have been compelled to labor at their arbitrary pleasure (Varley, 2003). Moreover, the seas, hills, ponds, rice fields, woods and plains have been cut off and assigned them to their provinces and to themselves (Varley, 2003).. This has resulted to some kind of contest among the elites and the leaders. It is evident also that the elites have gone further to make people pay taxes to them instead of the government. They first take their share and later take the leftovers to the central government. The Japanese state had few people, in regards to the whole population, and instead of benefiting from their own land and resources; they are cut off and sold to them at high prices. The resources that had been shared by the clans are regulated, and an elderman appointed in each ward. In addition, the population is registered and re-granting of land distribution provided to the

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

(HRM)Globalisation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

(HRM)Globalisation - Essay Example It is recognized through a number of trends such as growing economic integration and liberalization; trade deregulation; convergence of macroeconomic policies; modification of the role and concept of nation state; proliferation of supranational agreements and regulatory bodies; and globalization of information systems 1." Upon looking into the given premise, one might have the idea that the said practice has its positive and negative effects. In this case, if some countries oppose this kind of practice definitely anticipate is negative effects. So, what are these negative effects that they seem to oppose this kind of practice Vandana Shivea (2006) 2, an Indian ecofeminist and scholar, once stated that "globalization along with the support of organizations such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, have created a term more often known as "slave wages". These kinds of wages are not necessarily the result of "unjust" societies, but of the fact that global trade devalues the worth of people's lives and work. While globalization has brought jobs to rural, developing areas such as India where there was previously no employment, these jobs seem to be wolves in sheep's clothing.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Natural law and positivism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Natural law and positivism - Essay Example A segment of positivism purports that law and morality must operate separately. 'Natural law examines what the law should be' (Eglinton 2005). Eglinton states in his essay entitled Natural Law that 'Natural law overstates the relationship between law and morality, but positivism underestimates the importance of the relationship' (Eglinton 2005). Professor Jeremy Waldron has his own views on rights and democracy and the way the government attempts to mandate them by the use of laws. Professor Waldron believes that rights of a society are first and foremost in everyone's mind. He believes that Majoritism has it place in society. Unlike his opponents, Professor Waldron believes that the fact that the government allows the majority of the population to make decisions regarding laws and policies does not impede on the minority. His view is that the minority population is also considered because they too have been given the opportunity to choose or elect the officials that institute laws and policies. Waldron believes that although there are instances when democratic societies will implement laws that will infringe on the rights of the minority that the democratic process itself does not allow for the majority to be 'tyrants' to the minority.

Cause and Effect Essay Essay Example for Free

Cause and Effect Essay Essay As a child my mom always taught me to be proud of who I am; to disregard all the negativity that was sure to come my way. As a constant reminder she bought books like Black Beautiful Me and Strong and Black to keep up my self-esteem. It was a good reminder, but because of all the negativity that surrounded me I started to feel bad about who I am. I never thought that I would have been a victim of discrimination moving to such an isolated place, but it comes to show that you will never be rid of the negativity in the world. Moving to a small town where African Americans are hard to find; a lot of racism was always targeted towards my sisters and I. Attending School was the hardest part; I always saw myself as being beautiful, but walking down the hall being called â€Å"that ugly black girl† started to take its toll on my self-esteem. Everywhere I went I ran into discrimination and stereotypes; I was constantly asked if I wanted fried chicken or watermelon, I would have guys tell me â€Å"I would date you if you had lighter skin,† or walking in the store and have the word â€Å"nigger† shouted and not know where it originated from. I didn’t understand why I wasn’t liked or given the chance to prove myself, but I felt unwanted, like I didn’t belong. When I had read â€Å"The Myth of a Latin Woman† I found it quite relatable to my situation when I had first moved to Cortez. Cofer talks about how she was stereotyped when she moved to America; how she wanted to fit in, but found it difficult because of her traditions and culture. She stresses the fact that nobody really understood her, that movies about Latin and Puerto Ricans were the closest understanding people got to her culture. Cofer then states that all the hard times that she had growing up made her stronger, and more successful. She tells the reader to take all the negative experiences and turned them positive so that nothing is stopping one from being successful. The negativity was a struggle for me, I wanted to quit public school and start homeschooling. But, I began to learn how to ignore people and not care how or what anybody thought of me. With that idea I became more at peace with myself. I started to look up when walking down the hallways, I learned  to just smile and at the negativity. Instead of the hurtful words putting me down I used it as fuel to my flame, motivation in other words, to do better and be successful.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Nick Leeson’s strategy to earn trading profits on derivatives?

Nick Leeson’s strategy to earn trading profits on derivatives? Originally, trader Nick Leeson was supposed to be exploiting low-risk arbitrage opportunities that would leverage price differences in similar equity derivatives on the Singapore Money Exchange (SIMEX) and the Osaka Exchange. In fact, he made up a strategy to earn trading profits on derivatives where he would have to take much riskier positions by buying and selling different amounts of the contracts on the two exchanges or buying and selling contracts of different types. Leeson was speculating wildly and completely without authorization, in massive amounts on movements in the Japanese stock and bond markets. Leesons trading activities mainly involved three futures markets: Futures on the Japanese Nikkei 225 stock index, futures on 10-year Japanese Government bonds (JGB futures) and European futures. Leeson executed a trading strategy known as a straddle, with the objective of making a profit by selling put and call options on the same underlying financial instrument, in this case, the Nikkei 225 Index. Most of his trading was a bet on the volatility of the Tokyo stock and bond markets. In his futures positions, he was betting that the Tokyo stock market would rise and the bond market would fall. He was long Nikkei 225 futures, short Japanese government bond futures, and short both put and call options on the Nikkei Index. He was betting that the Nikkei index would rise, but he was wrong; instead it fell, causing him to lose $1.39 billion. A straddle will generally produce positive earnings when markets are stable but can result in large losses if markets are volatile. He planned his strategy taking into consideration the Japanese futures market as in Japan the margin is posted on a net basis for all costumers and if there are customers who are in short position, firm can take long position without any need to pay the call margin. He utilized this opportunity through his bogus error account 88888 and companies account 99002. What went wrong that caused his strategy to fail? Leesons strategy failed because he was taking into consideration that the market had experienced an extended bull run throughout the late 1980s and after that, it had fallen to half of its 1989 high. He thought that it had fallen enough and from now it would only go up, and he continued to bet that it would rise; but the Nikkei 225 index only kept falling. Leeson further increased the size of his open positions even as his losses increased due to volatility in the markets. He did nothing to hedge his position to lay off his potential losses if the markets did move the wrong way. In effect, Leeson was accepting unlimited liability. The second thing that was that he was relying on the bank interest rate; that it would decrease but eventually the exact opposite happened and the interest rate increased to a high. He thought if that the interest rates were low at the moment and if they were going to rise they would hurt him as more of the investors would move towards safe earning through the high interest rate returns, making the investment into market to reduce and hence to make himself on the safer side he invested into government bonds futures. Nick Leesons doubling strategy failed because he increased the size of his open positions even as his losses increased due to volatility in the markets and kept doubling his contracts whilst the Nikkei 225 continue to plummet following an earthquake in Japan. However, Leesons unauthorized trading positions suffered huge losses, and his operation unraveled. Moreover, interest rates did not rise as he expected which lead to further losses incurred on the Japanese government bond futures. He left the behind with huge liabilities totaling $1.4 billion, leading to the bankruptcy to the one of the oldest bank in Britain. Why did Nick Leeson establish a bogus error account (88888) when a legitimate account (99002) already existed? Nick Leeson established a bogus error account (88888) even when a legitimate account (99002) already existed, in order to conceal his unauthorized trading activities. Initially he claimed that he opened the error account (88888) to conceal a single loss of 20,000 pounds sterling that had resulted from an accounting error until he could make up the difference through trading. However, he continued booking various losses into the error account (88888) as a holding area for any premiums or losses that he made and also continued to increase his volume of trading and level of risk taking. It was a loophole he exploited to set up bogus accounts for non-existent clients to mask mounting debts. While the legitimate error account was known to Barings Securities in London, the bogus account was not. However, the bogus account was known to SIMEX as a customer account, not as an error account. In this way, Leeson could hide his balances and losses from London but not Singapore. One the other hand, SIMEX thought the bogus error account, 88888, was a legitimate customer account rather than a proprietary Barings account. The account enabled Leeson to take advantage of the rules of Japanese Futures market at that time. In Japan margin was posted on net basis for all customers. Therefore if many customers were short index futures, the firm could take long position without having to post cash margins. Why did Barings and its auditors not discover that the error account was used by Leeson for unauthorized trading? The reason why Barings and its auditors did not discover Leesons unauthorized trading and fraudulent activities was mostly a lack of internal checks and balances, and because Leeson was hiding in Barings organized chaos. Leeson was also given power due to his knowledge and there was no inquiry done into his trading just because he reported a profit to the company. Barings was impressed by Leesons achievements which lead them not to disclose to SIMEX that he infact had been disqualified from taking the UK traders exam (Broady, Roland, Woods, 2008). According to Ron Baker, the Head of Financial Products Group for Barings, There were no clearly laid down reporting lines with regard to Leeson, and in actual fact, there were several people responsible for keeping an eye on Leesons performance, but each one of them assumed that the other was watching closer than them, thus allowing Leeson several holes to get through. An internal auditor audited the Singapore office of Barings in 1994 and he reported that unauthorized trading could have happened because of the fundamental principle of the industry segregation of front and back office activities. The results were disclosed to the directors as well as some of the auditors recommendations, but the directors did not implement these recommendations (Collier Agyei-Ampomah, 2006). Moreover, Leesons actions could have been avoided if the Barings executives had done a comprehensive review of Leesons funding requirements, as well as set restrictions to what Leeson could or could not do. However, he also discovered that none of these changes to the internal structure had been implemented when the bank collapsed. One of the main reasons why Leeson was able to get away with so much was that there was no clear segregation of duties (Broady, Roland, Woods, 2008). The nature of the Japanese futures market at the time did not require exchanges to have a separation between the customer and the proprietary funds, which made it difficult to separate the funds and the position of the firm or customer. Leeson was left to be in control of everything that should have been checked by a superior or manager of some other department, which enabled him to track and modify the contents of his rogue account as he wished and keep his activities from being disclosed. Although the Director of BFS and the Finance Director of BSS, Simon Jones, pledged to the public that he would attend to the issue of segregation, he never actually took any action to separate Leesons front and back office doings. The Bank of England made a report on the matter and according to the report, the London senior management actually considered Jones to be an inadequate communicator, and were concerned with the fact that he was not as involved as he should have been in the affairs of BFS. Furthermore, the Bank of London also criticized the process of Leesons funding. Firstly, credit checks should have been performed on the large amounts of funds changing hands, but this was not performed either. Secondly, Bank of London discovered that there was no clear record of whether the funds reported were needed for its clients, or for its own accounts. This made reconciliation virtually impossible. The trading account was also not shown on any files or statements transmitted from Singapore to London, and thus auditors could not find any existence of the error account. Moreover, SIMEX categorized the 88888 account as a customer account rather than an error account. Internally, Barings had raised issues about having proper reconciliation in 1992. The risk manager of Londons branch, Gordon Bowser, had strongly recommended a development of a solid reconciliation process. However, Bowser left two others (Simon Jones and Tony Dickel) who had internal conflict over Leeson, to decide on the matter of reconciliation procedures, there was no solid arrangement between the two and Leeson was left to create the procedures for himself, allowing him to dictate the way he managed things. The loss of reconciliation meant that auditors could not trace the nature of these funds and thus they were unable to uncover the error account that Leeson used for his tradings. Over the years, there were several cases of internal conflict which was beneficial to Leesons stealthy activities. A particular example of this was in 1995, where SIMEX became apprehensive about the ability of Barings to meet its large margins in Leesons error account. SIMEX addressed a letter to Simon Jones, with the letter noting that a further $100 million should have been in account 88888. Instead of addressing the matter himself directly, Jones passed the letter to Leeson for Leeson to draft a response on his own. Lastly, when Leesons activities were finally being caught on by SIMEX, but they had not managed to find out exactly what was happening, SIMEX posted another letter to the Singapore branch, expressing doubts about Barings ability to fun margin calls. The letter was then referred back to London and from there; SIMEX was assured that opposite positions were being held in Japan. However, the truth was no opposite positions were being held and SIMEX officials made no follow-up checks with Osakas Stock Exchange to authenticate the claims. Why did none of the regulatory authorities in Singapore, Japan, and the United Kingdom not discover the true use of the error account? None of the regulatory bodies of Singapore, Japan on the UK discovered the true use of Leesons error account because firstly, it was visible to them only as a customer account, and SIMEX had also granted an exemption on the number of contracts that Barings could hold with the presumption that Barings was hedging and not speculating. This is in fact due to Barings conservative firm reputation, which lulled exchange and clearing houses into a false sense of security. Additionally, Barings speculative position was hidden with the use of an omnibus account and with this account, the brokers customers identities could successfully be hidden from the exchange and clearing houses. A number of happenings in the UK also allowed Leeson to hide and manage his activities easier. At that time, the Bank of England had a rule known as the Large Exposure Rule which stated that a bank is unable to lend more than 25% of its capital to any single entity. Barings made a request to Bank of London for an exception and argued that one exchange should not be classified as one entity. The supervisor in charge of Barings activities recognized the argument and the request and promised to review it and in the meantime, he offered Barings an informal concession for Japan, which Barings extended to Singapore and Hong Kong. On the matter of the Large Exposure Rule, the supervisor failed to respond until one whole year later, and his answer was that there were no exceptions to be made and the positions taken under the informal concession should be unwound. By that time, the damage had already been done. The Bank of England also found that following the consolidation of Baring Securities Ltd and Baring Brothers and Co., it allowed the two to be categorized as one entity for capital adequacy and large exposure purposes, but the process of this consolidation was too informal and the results of it played a part in Leesons unauthorized activities. This not only meant that Leeson could hide his activities, but also the fact that he had access to a much larger pool of capital. Why was Barings Bank willing to transfer large cash sums to Barings Futures Singapore? Barings Bank believed that the large cash sums transferred to Barings Futures Singapore was for loans to customers as portrayed on the Barings Futures Singapore balance sheet. The key aspect of Japanese Future market was that exchange did not require a separation between customer and propriety funds. Therefore it was impossible to distinguish between the firms and the customers position. Why did the attempt by the Bank of England to organize a bailout for Barings fail? Throughout that weekend, the Bank of England hosted meetings in London to try to form a consortium to bail out Barings. The attempt by the Bank of England to organize a bailout for Barings failed because no one would assume the contingent risk of additional, but as yet undiscovered losses. Bank of London made a huge effort to organize a bailout for Barings bank. The bailout failed because Barings bank reached the position where losses amounted more than double the capitalization of the bank;, estimated losses approached $1.1 billion. Further losses were inevitable and thus there was no one ready to assume the contingent risk of additional but yet undiscovered losses. The bank was trapped in such a situation that the amount of future losses was unknown and unrevealed due to the unauthorized dealing by Nick Leeson. Suggest regulatory and management reforms that might prevent a future debacle of the type that bankrupted Barings. There have been numerous cases of collapses and overwhelming losses to companies in the corporate and banking sector and this called for some serious reformation, with particular attention to derivatives. The entire sector did not sit up and take notice until the Baring Brothers bankruptcy. How could an entity steeped with trust and history fall apart with no signs? Following the bankruptcy, reports were created by the Bank of England, SIMEX, and the Group of Thirty to suggest ways in which regulators and legislators could increase monitoring of financial activities. After the collapse of Barings Bank, an article was published with the name of Global Institutions, National Supervision and Systemic Risk, and this article underlines the reforms and changes in the financial sector that have already been implemented. The reforms that have already been implemented included: the expanded usage of netting and collateral; enhancements in methods to measure risk; greater off-balance-sheet risk disclosure; extensive increases in major financial institutions equity capital, financial sector consolidation; and encouragement of growth of securitization. The Bank of Englands report detailed how the losses occurred, the reason the losses were unnoticed in and out of Barings, and the lessons learnt from the bankruptcy. The following are the five lessons the Bank of England identified (Ambit ERisk, 2010): Management teams have a duty to understand fully the business that they manage; Responsibility for each business activity has to be clearly established and communicated; Clear segregation of duties is fundamental to any effective control system; Relevant internal controls, including independent risk management, have to be established for all business activities; Top management and the Audit Committee have to ensure that significant weaknesses, identified to them by internal audit or otherwise, are resolved quickly. The list that Bank of England came up with seemed simple, but the truth was one (or usually several) points listed were often the reason why corporations lost large amounts of money in the derivatives market. Other ways in which to prevent future debacles like the Barings collapse would be an increase in supervision of employees. Leeson never had a trading license prior to his arrival to Singapore and there was scarce monitoring of his activities since no one person was directly responsible for supervising his trading activities (Burnett, 2006). Also, a clear reporting line should be enforced because Leesons fraud could have been facilitated by confusion in having two reporting lines: one to London for proprietary trading and the other to Tokyo for customer trading. Top management should also be aware of the business that they are dealing with. In the case of Barings Bank, Leeson was reporting huge profits to the company but top management should have known that arbitraging is a relatively low risk and low profit business (Collier Agyei-Ampomah, 2006), so how on earth could Leeson have been reporting such massive profits? Top management could have identified these flaws immediately if they had known and had they done their job properly (Narayanaswamy, 2008). It is thus very important for top management to have sufficient knowledge of the field (or be involved in) to understand the complexities of business and its fundamental concepts. Based in Washington DC, the Group of Thirty began to be particularly apprehensive of the risks that derivatives posed. The Group has issued numerous periodicals to address these problems, mainly publications like International Insolvencies in the Financial Sector, Discussion Draft, which outlined fourteen ideas to reduce risk in the financial sector, particularly with derivatives. Another publication titled International Insolvencies in the Financial Sector, Summary of Comments from Respondent Countries on Discussion Draft, which showed member countries responses and opinions regarding the proposed changes to financial institutions. It was noted that the support for these changes were generally strong among all the countries that responded, which showed how Barings failure rocked the entire worlds confidences in the financial sector.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Racism: The Artificial Category of Race Essay examples -- Sociology Ra

Racism: The Artificial Category of Race THESIS: Scientists and other intellectuals recognize the modern concept of "race" as an artificial category that developed over the past five centuries due to encounters with non-European people. Even though people still attempt to organize humans into categories according to their race, these categories have been shown to have no scientific basis. The term "race" is a modern concept. It's definition has adopted radically new meaning over the past few centuries. Currently, the term is used to characterize differences among human groups. According to the Oxford English Dictionary the term "race" in 1512 is "a group or class of persons, animals, or things, having some common feature or features." Today, Oxford's definition is quite different: "a local geographic or global human population distinguished by genetically transmitted characteristics and/or any of the major biological definitions of man distinguished by physically evident features, for example, Caucasian, Negroid, and Mongoloid." This definition is a result of regular interaction with non-European people. The Europeans began to explore other lands, thus creating the idea that some people are different than them and should not be under the same category as them. The constant interaction with groups of people who’s lifestyles were very different led Europeans to believe that they were a different "kind" of people. Scientists worked on and created many different ways to classify the different people they found. This unrefined method of categorization was the origin of a new culture-oriented taxonomic system for human beings. The system is based on the "Great Chain of Being," which is a way of classifying things according to... ...ces of Man. New York: The Macmillian Company and Their Distribution, 1925. Holli, Melvin G. "Race, Ethnicity and Urbanization: Selected Essays." Journal of American Ethnic History 16 (1996): 110-125. Myers, Norma. Reconstructing the Black Past: Blacks in Britain 1780-1830. Portland: Frank Cass Press, 1996. Philip, David. Race and Ethnicity. Lansdowne: Citadel Press, 1980. "Race." Oxford English Dictionary. First ed. 1928. "Race." Webster's New World Dictionary. Third ed. 1988. Smedley, Audrey. Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview. Boulder: Westview Press, 1999. Takaki, Ronald. A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1989. Tobias, Phillip. "The Meaning of Race." Race and Social Difference. Baxtor, Paul, Basil Sansom ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd., 1972. 19-43.

Friday, October 11, 2019

The clinical career path for nurse Essay

Introduction A ‘Nurse Practitioner’ (NP) has been defined as â€Å"a registered nurse with the capability to practice autonomously and collaboratively with other health professions† (Mosby’s Dictionary of Medicine p. 2010). NPs must complete a , Master’s degree in education, as approved by the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (Australian Nursing Federation 2011). [you need to signal that you are going to review the history and development of NPs] The role of a NP is to provide cost effective care and safe accessible treatment and to improve of health care and patient outcomes (Australian College of Nurse Practitioners, 2012).[I’ve moved this text to the start of your introduction] An overview of the development of the role of NPs is as follows. [you can use your own words but you need a signal here!] In October 1990, the first NP committee convened in New South Wales (Australian College of Nurse Practitioners,2012) and this committee contributed to the establishment of f the NP role in Australia in1 2001 (Australian College of Nurse Practitioners 2012; Taylor 2007). In the United States and England the role has been in existence since the 1960s (N3ET2 2006 p. 1). Since 2001 (?), NPs have been slowly spreading all over Australia (Driscoll et al. 2005, p. 141) and the role now exists in all states and territories (Australian College of Nurse Practitioner s, 2012). Diverse skills, experience and qualifications are all vital components in meeting the clinical requirements to be endorsed as a NP by the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2011). For example [give some examples to elaborate on this sentence Chauvy.] These nurses have advanced and extended roles compared to other registered nurses, particularly within the endorsed areas of their scope of practice (Australian Nursing Federation 2011; Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia 2011). To illustrate †¦ [elaborate a bit on these roles, endorsed areas, different scopes of practice here.] Despite the contribution made by NPs, barriers exist in Australia which prevent these nurses from providing the full care for which are trained (Taylor 2007). Some of these obstacles include the limited access to a provider number,; the restricted right to prescribe (find a better reference please!!!) and to write referrals (Driscoll et al. 2005, p. 141). [Chauvy, don’t forget the opposition of the AMA as we discussed!] This essay will review the growing clinical career pathway of NPs, the autonomy and limitation within the scope of practice experienced, and will provide an overview of the benefits NPs bring to the health system in Australia. Clinical Career Path In order to qualify as a NP, the applicant needs to meet the requirements issued by the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (2011), as specified in the ‘Guidelines on endorsements as a nurse practitioner’ (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia 2011). These requirements are as follows: Firstly, the applicant must already be a ‘registered nurse’ (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia 2011) and must not have any record of unsatisfactory professional performance or unprofessional conduct (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia 2011). Secondly, the applicant must have three years or equivalent experience in advanced practice. These three years or equivalent experience must be acquired within six years from lodging the application (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia 2011). Lastly, the applicant must have completed the study of ANMAC [explain] accredited and Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (2011) approved NP program at Masters Level. The Heath Practitioner Act 2009 only permits the use of the protected title ‘NP’ by those meeting all of the above requirements (Australian Nursing Federation 2011). After complete the Master’s degree, some health authorities provide internships in Victoria. For example, Wintle, Newsome and Livingston (2011) report that Eastern Health provides such internships, and these assist NPs  in meeting the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia national competencies. The focus is of these competencies is to ensure the development of clinical assessments; diagnostic skills; knowledge of pharmacology; analysis of medical treatment, medication management and clinical leadership – all of which assist in the preparation for endorsement as an NP3. However, recent research suggests that the endorsement process remains problematic and is not consistent across different jurisdictions in Australia. Harvey et al (2011, p.247-8) recommend that the process for becoming a NP in Australia should change, due to the difficulties of endorsement existing in different jurisdictions. The findings of this study demonstrate that different state-based regulatory policies throughout the Australian workforce affect the employment of r NPs (Harvey et al 2011, p.247-8). For example, in Victoria, along with ‘the guidelines of endorsement for a nurse practitioner’ (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia 2011 – do you need to repeat this ref?), the NPs who wish to prescribe medications must apply for the ‘Explanatory Statement: Nurse Practitioner Category Notion (Victoria) and have that registered against the name (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia 2010). In contrast, NPs in NSW †¦ (you want to give an example to show how states differ – pick another state and show how prescribing rights vary from one to another to complete the point you are making her e.) It should be acknowledged that the Australian public are often confused about the difference between a NP and a registered nurse (RN). One distinction between a NP and a RN is in the different levels in education. The RN would be qualified in a Bachelor’s Degree in Nursing (Mosby’s Dictionary of Medicine, 2010), however the NP must also receive not only a Bachelor’s Degree in Nursing but the extended study in a Master’s Degree (Australian Nursing Federation 2006). The second difference is the level of autonomy enjoyed by NPs relative to RNs. This autonomy enables the NP to initiate treatment without the supervision of the medical practitioner, whereas the RN is under the supervision of a GP at all times (Australian Nursing Federation 2006). However, there are also some similarities among the two health professionals;both are eligible to initiate medical surgical routes and do basic nursing assessments (Oxford Reference Concise 1994,  Australian Nursing F ederation 2006). Scope of Practice The scope of practice (SoP) is the legislative framework which indicates the area of jurisdictions that the NP must work within (Baker, N 2010 p 211). NPs have a wider SoP than RNs (ANF). They can call upon the extended skills and knowledge, interpret test results and scans, perform consultations, content assessments and undertake on planning and research diagnosis (ANF). Any presentation that is out of the jurisdictions of the SoP, the NP must seek assistance of a medical practitioner (Heaps and bounds).The SoP of a NP varies across all health areas (Baker 2010 p) for example; a NP trained in emergency department (ED) as an emergency nurse practitioner (ENP) will have a different SoP to a NP trained in the mental department as a mental nurse practitioner (MNP). To illustrate this further, the study by Lowe (2010 p) demonstrates the current SoP of an ENP at the Alfred Emergency and Trauma Centre (AETC) located in Melbourne. The AETC have established the SoP for ENPs around the model of care (MOC) (Lowe 2010 p) that was based upon the Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) cited in the Alfred Health website (2012). The areas in the SoP involve prescribing medications, ordering tests, diagnosing results and admitting and discharging patients (Lowe 2010 p). The assessment of minor injuries or illnesses and initiation of treatments are also part of the ENP’s SoP (Lowe 2010 p). Lastly required at the AETC the ENP must also attend educational classes with other ED medical staff, and further additional classes that will identify the gaps between the ENP’s skill and knowledge and own professional development (Lowe 2010 p80). In comparison, Fry’s research (2011, p58) indicated that the NP in the critical care department (CCD) have separated areas which are adult, paediatric and neonate, however all three areas can fall under the same SoP. The SoP (Fry 2011, p64) involves around direct patient assessments, research of the injury or illness, complex monitoring and therapies of high intensity interventions and care focused by highly acute technology (Association of critical care 2011 p12). NPs in the CCD also follow up with post-intensive care discharge, intensive care retrieval and transfers, and follow up on  outpatient care (Fry 2011, p64). There are times a NP trained in certain an area such as a MNP, can work in a different health department for example ED. A case study by Baker (2010) based in Victoria shows a MNP working in the ED as part of a team, the Youth Early Psychosis (YEP). Bakers (2010) article shows that working as a MNP in the ED in a YEP team can work autonomy to appropriate areas. The SoP involves the combination of a NP working in the MD and ED, in this mostly around the SoP of a MNP; however it is also required for the MNP to obtain an extension of practice within the ED (Baker 2010 p 212). The additional roles within the ED include ‘fast tracking patients’ and attending to other medical concerns (Baker 2010 p 212). The MNP working within the YEP can prescribe a limited range of medication in the duration of seven days, supervise and monitor the progression of the medication, initiate other therapeutic skills and test and take further action towards the patient (Baker 2010 p). The Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) became accessible, albeit in a limited way to NPs on 1 November 2010, were governed by the Health Legislation Amendment ACT 2010 (Medicare Australia 2011). Objections to the NP role have been voiced by the AMA(cited in Taylor 2007, p 20) on the grounds that NPs â€Å"†¦are not adequately educated and trained in areas such as ordering pathology and diagnostic tests, making medical diagnoses, prescribing medications, referring patients to specialist and having hospital privileges†. Furthermore the PBS has constricted the prescribing rights to the NPs’ SoP in the designated state and territory (PBS). In contrast, this is a major progression in the development on expanding the SoP compared to 2008 where the Health Legislation was yet to pass (reference PBS). Dr Phillip Della (cited in Taylor 2007) supported the availability of the MBS and PBS during this time, to provide safe and quality patient care across all access and addition to realising the NPs’ full potential used to improve Australia’s health. Medicare Australia (2011) reports that only NPs working in a private practice  may obtain access to the MBS services, which refer patients to specific specialists and request of some pathology and diagnostic items. easons stated in the Department of Health WA (2011 p. 16), that under the Health Insurance Act 1973 (cited in Department of Health WA, 2011 p. 16), that NPs (or other health professionals) with pre-existing funding arrangements with the governing bodies of the Commonwealth, state or local will not be rebated by Medicare. This is because NPs working in the public sector are to provide a ‘public hospital service’, thus cannot charge a fee for treatment or care initiated to public patients (Department of Health WA, 2011 p. 16). A ‘public hospital service’ is funded by the governing body to a public patient (Department of Health WA, 2011 p.16), and therefore MBS services are only allocated to NPs in the private sectors because patients are being charged. According to the Health Department SA (2011) fact sheet, NPs working in the private sector would be required to obtain a provider number to access to the MBS. NPs working in the public sector would use the provider number of the public hospital. Provider numbers are obtained through the Department of Health and Ageing in the Australia Government (2011). A final requirement to access the MBS, are that NPs must have professional indemnity insurance (Australian Government, Department of Health and Ageing 2011) which can be obtain through the Australian Nursing Federation (2012). Though the initiation of the PBS (2010) was enabled for the authorised NPs to prescribe medications under the state and territory legislation, prescribing is still limited due to the SoP of the NP and state and territory rights. Medications are listed for NPs to identified which medicines are available to prescribe are located on the PBS website (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, 2011). NPs can also prescribe when they have a collaborative arrangement with the general practitioner (GP) under certain conditions, this usually occurs when the patient is living in a rural or remote area (Department of Health and Ageing WA, 2011, p). The collaborative arrangement occurs in two forms continuing therapy only (CTO) model and shared care model (SCM) is shown in the Department of Health and Ageing WA (2011 p). The CTO model is when the GP has already initiated the treatment and prescription for the patient and then is continued by the NP  (Australian Government 2011). The SCM is formalised agreement between both NP and GP planned to managed the treatment of the patient (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing 2011). Value According to the ANF (2011) and ACNP (2012) the role of the NPs is to provide cost effective care, provide patients in rural and remote areas treatment, improve waiting times, faster access to treatment and provide a mentorship and clinical expertise to other health professional. The framework utilized by the Department of Human Services Victoria(2000) recommends various ways in which NPs can assist in improving existing health services and patient flow in Australia (Wintle, Newsome & Livingston 2011). To illustrate, in the emergency department(ED) based in Sunshine Hospital in Melbourne, there has been a shortage of doctors working on site especially after hours (Webster-Brain 2011 p). In 2004 a project developed by the Department of Human Services Victoria (cited in Webster-Brain 2011 p) provided the hospital funding to introduce the role of NP. Webster-Brain (2011 p) suggested that the NP was deemed to be trained in the management of minor presentations, for example minor injuries, infections, complaints and symptoms of miscarriages. The benefit of NPs being available at the ED is that action can be taken immediately and effectively (Webster-Brain 2011 p). The NP provides support in counselling to those whom just experienced a miscarriage, also to educate the emotional impact on the medical and nursing staff (Webster-Brain 2011 p). This area noted in Gabrial et al (2005) that even at early pregnancy loss, practitioners need to be aware at any inappropriate or insensitive responses may cause more grief or trauma towards the patient. Thus this issue can be assisted by the NP through sensitive and supplementary counselling. According to Webster-Brain (2011 p) the successful collaborations between the medical staff, emergency physicians and NPs in the ED, resolved the problem in the lack of services and staff. A survey was conducted by Scully (2006 p) which reviewed the contributions of NPs model care on the patients at Sunshine Hospital. The findings had patients responding positively towards the NPs service and care, thus resulted in the permanent implementation of the NP position at  Sunshine Hospital (Scully 2006, p). There has been some opposition to the expansion of the role of the NP, notably from the Australian Medical Association (AMA) (cited in Taylor 2007, p). The AMA (cited in Taylor, p) does not believe that NPs are adequately trained to prescribe medication and order diagnostic tests, therefore they support limited access to MBS and PBS. Another concern from the AMA are that the role of a medical practitioner may one day be substituted by the growing occupation of NPs (Weiland et al ). They have announced that NPs â€Å"cannot and should not replace the expertise and care provided by general practitioners.† (AMA 1994). However NPs were originally developed in the United States to provide care and utilising treatment in cases of patients in rural and remote health where a medical practitioner cannot be able to attend to (Distoll et al p). Case studies in Australia, which addressed welfare shortages in other suburbs with growing population, have proven positive (Scully 2006 p). Sunshine Hospital in Melbourne utilised the NPs to resolving the outnumbered medical practitioners and staff (Webster-Brain 2011 p), that resulted to the permanent position of the NP role is one example. In this case the AMA (cited in Taylor 2007 p.) had agreed that the shortage of medical practitioners are undeniable and is an issue. In a solution, the AMA (cited in Taylor 2007 p.) have reopposed that Australia should utilise the treatment and care provided by the NP in such areas, however with the consultation of a medical practitioner, whom carries the ultimate clinical responsibility. The awareness of the general public about the role of NPs is limited of this stage. There is limited awareness about the position of NPs in the Australian public (Taylor 2011 p). Professor Glenn (cited in Taylor 2007 p.) argue that the â€Å"State government needs to educate the public about nurse practitioners and how anyone on a waiting lists for category three or four could be receiving care from a health professional. The public would be appalled if they knew how ready nurse practitioners are to provide health services but are restricted by bad policy.† Taylor, M (2007) recommends that those have and are interested in the position of a NP should consider addressing barriers that requires action. Promoting Australia’s public  awareness, utilising and justifying the role of a NP and involved politically to support change are a few of many factors that may alter the restriction to NPs (Taylor 2007). Conclusion In conclusion, Australia is still fairly new as a country towards role of a NP, which has been around internationally for much longer (Distroll et al 2005 p141). The NP has a higher education level at the Master’s Level which can perform specific areas within their scope of practice (Australian Nursing Federation 2006), to help out in different areas of aspects in Australia’s health system (Baker 2010 p). The process of obtaining the title and position of a ‘NP’ is based the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (2011), however was indicated by Harvey et al (2011 p2478) that complications have raised difficulties through the endorsement in different state. The Australian health systems are still in the progress of trial and error with developing and broadening of the SoP of a NP. The accessibility of the MBS and PBS by the legislation has proven to be a great step despite controversies from the AMA (cited in Taylor). Finally the value of NP have been evaluated and have successfully implemented on the Australian health system improving waiting times for patients, assist the workload for medical practitioners, and mentor and enhance communication between patient and medical staff (Webster-Brain 2011 p). References Department of Human Services Victoria (2004) (Webster-Brain 2011). Gabrial et al (2005) Scully (2006)

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Mexican Immigrants

The number of Mexican immigrants, both legal and illegal, in California today is quite staggering.   Amidst the terrorist threat issues and various biological scares, these immigrants have changed the economy of California completely. The state of California once boasted a healthy employment market for immigrants, as well as natives.   Now, the economy of California is in recession, along with the rest of the United States.   According to the California Employment Development Department, unemployment numbers rose to 4.5 percent in October, which is a rise from the 2.1 percent a year ago. Of the thousands of jobs lost in September and October, over half were in hospitality, service, and construction.(The Waiting Game, 2006) As a result of the drop in employment, Mexican immigrants are struggling to survive.   Most immigrants are in the United States to make a better life for their families, who are often still in Mexico.   They work and earn wages to pay their living expenses here, and the rest is sent back to their families.   Most have now taken to the streets to stand and wait for a job opportunity.   Undocumented seasonal workers are the most vulnerable.   They make up 8.5 percent of the total number of immigrants, and they have to resort to sleeping in parks and under bridges. According to Martha Sanchez-Gomez, a specialist from the Social Research Institute of the Nacional Autonomous University of Mexico, said that immigrants suffer discrimination and social vulnerabilities.   She also states that permanent immigrants make up 61.6 percent of the total, while those who travel back and forth between here and Mexico represent 28.8 percent.   The latter are those who work with the high seasons, when the demand for workers is higher.   Ã‚  (Mexidata.Info-July 2005) The adult immigrants are not the only ones who suffer.   The numbers of children that have had no formal education before immigration is outrageous.   These children fall far behind the children of other California residents.   Tied in with the uneducated parents, they struggle just to get through day to day life.   Ms. Sanchez-Gomez states that statistically, 3.2 percent of adult immigrants have had no schooling, whereas 66.6 percent have a maximum of six year of education.   The majority of the farm workers are young men with very low levels of education.   About 10 percent are women, who prefer jobs as hotel chambermaids or as domestic workers, or to do cleaning work in nearby restaurants. It is widely believed that Mexican immigrants should be allowed to become United States citizens on the conditions that they pass the citizenship tests and that they cooperate with local government.   While this is an opportunity for them, it leaves a gapping whole in local economies as well as the nation’s economy. There are several views, both pros and cons, to letting Mexican immigrants stay in the United States.   There is a heated debate taking place now that, if solved, will provide some general laws that are more defined than what they are now. Think about the pros to illegal immigrants become permanent citizens.   These immigrants will contribute more money to economies.   Some will continue their education, and go one to open more businesses, thereby providing more employment.   Because they have an unspoken assumption that they should earn their own way, the immigrants tend to struggle in silence, never asking for governmental financial services such as Food Stamps.   This reduces the liability to tax payers. The cons to illegal immigrants staying in the United States far outweigh the pros.   Immigrants have caused the homeless population to rise.   The available employment, as stated before, has dropped severely, largely due to the fact that the immigrants are satisfied with working for minimum wage.   The available housing has dropped as well, and will continue to drop due to the large numbers of illegal immigrants that manage to sneak across the border. Mexican immigrants increase the poverty levels.   Although they are making as much as 10 times what they would in Mexico, the standard of living in the United States is much higher.   These immigrants do not generally take this information into account when they make their plans to immigrate.   About 47 percent of undocumented Mexicans believe that improving their quality of life can only be improved by coming to the United States. One common myth about illegal Mexican immigrants is that they are all criminals deserving to be severely punished.   However, the typical immigrant is an honest person, struggling to give a better life to himself and his family.   A large percentage of these immigrants mind their own business, and are far from being violent criminals.   Can we say that much about the United States population? Another quite racist myth about the immigrants is that they are just here as parasites that are feeding off our tax dollars and not contributing in return.   As stated earlier, they know that they have to pay their own way, and thus always offer something in return for what they may need.   Mexican workers pay sales taxes on their purchases, the same as everyone else, but illegal immigrants are often taken advantage of and paid below minimum wage.   This gives the employer a higher profit margin.   They are simply pocketing the taxes they withhold from payrolls. Right now, with the nation being in the condition that it is, the Mexican immigrants are hurting us more and more the longer that they stay here.   Most of these immigrants can not read or write, let alone speak English.   They are taking up valuable space and employment that is severely needed to raise our national economy.   We have enough problems with Americans.   We have a growing number of homeless.   We have a growing number of unemployed mothers and fathers, who struggle to feed their children.   The dependency of government social services by Americans grows as each day passes. There needs to be a set decision made as to the fate of the Mexican immigrants.   Either we give them the opportunity to become citizens, or we deport them.   There should be no in between.   Those that cannot become legal immigrants, even if they have a temporary work visa, should be deported as well.   There are other ways for the United States to help the Mexicans. One way that the United States can offer assistance to Mexicans, without the fear of it being solely a charity effort, is to open more businesses in Mexico.   We have all these huge corporations and ridiculously large multi-million dollar companies.   If we start opening more businesses in Mexico, with pay standards the same as ours, Mexico’s economy will benefit.   Why should the drug dealers and slum lords be the only ones that are happy and have a good quality of life? Resources 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Hue, Vanessa   (September 9, 2005) Mexican Immigrants’ Kids Falter in School  Ã‚  Ã‚ 2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Notimex News Service Of Mexico City (July 25, 2006) Mexican Immigrants in California Lack Basic Services   for Mexidata.Info   Ã‚ 3.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Schefler, Chris (2006) writing for the University of Dayton  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Racist Myths about Mexican Immigrants  Ã‚  Ã‚                              

Technology Is a Hindrance

In recent times, technological advances have become an absolutely central part of our lives. Technological advances can gain access to various information and entertainment. However, it is said that technology is a hindrance, not a help, to students because they are distracted by technological advances and wasting too much too much time on computer games and other new technology. In my opinion, those technologies are the tool for students to learn and gain access information.Take for example, when we have to do project or homework, we may need to search information, word process the content and present the project by using the computer. There is much information in the internet. When we want to make a birthday cake, we can search the recipe in the internet immediately. You can look up for the dictionary machine instead of the bulky cumbersome dictionary. At school, teachers use the projectors to teach instead of the textbook. Technology is a component of modern education.Without it, students will not learn the skills they need to succeed in a global work environment which is increasingly dependent on new technology. For instance, Students who learn how to make graphs and how to use presentation software will learn some of the skills they need to work in many business environment. Moreover, because of the technology, the relationship between the students and teachers are more closed. If there are any questions that you want to ask the teachers, you can not ask them immediately.Nevertheless, it is not a problem with the technology. You can call or email the teachers to ask for help. Through the technological advances, you can work and learn more effectively can efficiently. All these need the help of technology. However, there are also hindrances for students sometimes. There are many entertainment options such as computer games, television which is easy for students to get distracted. Students may make their time networking, entertaining on those technologies.As a result, they will fine it hard to concentrate in class and lose focus on study easily. Yet, if students use those advances appropriately, will they still waste too much time on websites, networking? If they are self-discipline, it won’t be a hindrance for them. Contrary, they can learn to be self-discipline. Above all, technology does more goods than harms. I think technology is not a hindrance but a help when they have proper time management and a correct attitude to technology.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

How Significant Was Kevin Rudd's Apology to the Stolen Generations Essay

How Significant Was Kevin Rudd's Apology to the Stolen Generations - Essay Example It was a very strong political expression that the country expressed towards the acknowledgement of fundamental human rights. The apology statement had very relevant political and social implications on Australia and the outlook of the country towards its indigenous populations. These implications stretch beyond the geographical boundaries of the country as the issue was discussed by the civil society all across the world. The objective of this essay is to analyze the significance of Kevin Rudd’s Apology to the Stolen Generations. Background of the apology The apology was a political statement which had been awaited for many years. Indigenous children and children of Torres Strait Islanders were forcefully separated from their families by the Australian government. The justification that the Australian government had for this act was the desired objective of upward social mobility and exposure of these children to the predominant modernized culture of Australia (Haebich, 2011) . These children were later referred to as the ‘Stolen Generation’. An enquiry commission The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, headed by Mick Dodson and Sir Ronald Wilson, was setup to undertake the â€Å"National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families† (Haebich, 2011 p. 1033). ... 1033). The expression ‘Lost Generation’ is justified by the large percentage of children who were deprived of their parents and living systems. The report shed light to disturbing facts that these children were unhappy in the foster homes, institutions and adoptive families they were put in (Haebich, 2011, p. 1033). The report also contained evidence of forced labor imposed upon these children. The extensive interviews, conducted by the enquiry commission, observed consequences of separation which included medical and psychological issues, addiction, violence, self harm and even suicides (Haebich, 2011). In light of all these observations there was pressure on the Australian government both from within the country and human rights movements across the world. Moreover, out of the 54 recommendations made by The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, one was that the Australian government must apologize to the stolen generation (Haebich, 2011). Since then, this has been a matter of political debate for all the governments which came to power in Australia. In other words, the apology was much awaited by the world. The Political Importance of the Apology The decision of Kevin Rudd to apologize to the Stolen Generation has its importance as a strong political expression. It must be noted here that after the report thoroughly asserting the need of the apology was published, it was denied for 11 long years. No governments owned up the moral responsibility towards the Stolen Generation and the human rights violations faced by them. The general Australian response to the report was that the observations were inflammatory (Haebich, 2011, p. 1033). There was also