Friday, May 31, 2019

the gold fields of Victoria :: essays research papers

Victoria was a part of the colony of New S go forthh Wales up to the earliest 1850s, when it became an independent colony in its own right. All burgeoning States have growing pains and Victoria was no exception. Rich in agricultural lands early settlers took out sheep runs granted by the giving medication over large tracts of land, where both sheep and some cattle were grazed. Van Diemens Land to the southeastward, now the State of Tasmania had large penal settlements and the government bureaucracy was both well established and manned. Victoria drew on these reserves in the early years of settlement. The wealth of gold hidden in Central Victoria lay undiscovered for some time and true recognition of the potential was non realized until the finds were widely publicized. Ballarat is an aboriginal name core "a good place to rest". An aboriginal tribe known as the Kulin inhabited the area. These inhabitants had dark brown skin rather than black. Although they were the tradi tional owners of the land, they were just now pushed aside by European settlement, and decimated by disease, poisoning, shootings and in fact genocide. Within 60 years they were no more. The first recorded gold finds in the order was at Clunes, July 1851, some 20 miles north of Ballarat, and this started a small rush. A few weeks later gold was found at Buninyong about 10 miles south of Ballarat. This was poor yielding ground and although diggers came to the area, they quickly dispersed seeking more profitable ground. Two such characters were John Dunlop, a seventy-year-old veteran of the Battle of Waterloo, and a much younger James Regan, whose ancestry was Irish. They had been disappointed with the gold at Buninyong, so decided to prospect the area themselves in anticipation that both Clunes and Buninyong would not be the only gold bearing ground in the district. They were right and after finding gold in creek beds along the White long horse Range on Ballarat Station, they came to a small hill on the northern end of the range and washed the first gold from what was to become one of the capital gold bonanzas of all time. The date was 21st August 1851. This hill became known as Poverty Point. (Only because the top of the hill contained no gold) The discovery only remained a secret for about a week, and with news of the gold find the first great gold rush of Victoria had begun.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Helena Blavatsky :: Ukraine Biographies Writers Authors Essays

capital of Montana Blavatsky Helena Blavatsky was an intriguing woman from the country of Ukraine. She could be considered a nomad for her time however, she was not interested in finding fodder and shelter. Helena wanted to find those who were considered spiritualists like herself. She lived from 1831-1891 and can be considered a very influential woman from her era. Helena Petrovna Blavatsky was born August 12, 1831 in Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. Her paternity was Colonel Peter von Hahn and her mother was Helena Andreyevna von Hahn. Colonel von Hahn was a military man fighting in Poland when Helena was born. Her mother, often hurt by her husbands absence seizure and wrote about the turmoil of being a woman in her time. She published 8 novels by the time she faced an untimely death at the develop of 27 as a highly regarded novelist. Helenas mother knew from the time she was born that she was no average child. (3, 4, 5, 6) When Helena was born s he was very easy and the people around doubted she would even live. Therefore, before the baby was even 24 hours old a baptism was held. Helenas aunt, a young child, was asked to stand in as a godmother. During the ceremony, the child became restless and knocked over a candle without anyone noticing. The priest performing the baptism suffered severe burns when his robe caught fire. The people at Helenas baptism saw this as a sign. She was nicknamed Lyola because her grandparents and servants thought she had powers. (6) As a child, she had great passion for magic and the unknown. She was often found playing by the river in Ekaterinoslav. She said she was playing with the russalkas whom were green haired nymphs thought to haunt the riverbanks. When servants and other children bothered her, she threatened to have the russalkas tickle them to death. (2) While Helena, her mother, sister, and brother traveled a stagger due to her fathers military positio n, Helena was always happiest playing with the servants children and not the children of her rank and aristocracy.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Society and Government Essay -- Philosophy, Hobbes, Locke

Thomas Hobbes Leviathan and John Lockes Two Treatises of Government swallow produced two definitive and vastly different theories of government. Though both philosophers seem to be embedded in the concept of a natural law, why do Hobbes and Locke seem to come to two opposing conclusions about society and government? The answer lies in critical distinctions between their interpretations on the state of nature, including their conjectures on human race nature, their perceptions of freedom and equality, and their ultimate reasoning for civil society. Human nature is an integral part of the state of nature theory. Hobbes theorizes that human nature is flawed, with men being by nature selfish and hedonistic of the voluntary acts of every man, the object is some Good to himselfe (Hobbes, 1996, p. 93). This suggests that in a natural state, humans are only guided by their own needs and wants. As a result, Hobbes believes that the only law that governs the state of nature is maintenan ce of self-preservation. This gives rise to a clashing of desires, which compels man to undermine all concern for others and put oneself above all else. The extent to which man is able to undermine others for the sake of self-benefit is also limitless according to Hobbes in this law of disposition for where no covenant hath preceded, there hath nor Right been transferred and every man had right to everything and consequently, no action can be Unjust (Hobbes, 1996, p. 100). There is a overhear Hobbesian view of morality that begins to take form. Good and evil seem to be relative to Hobbes. Because of this, each individual in the state of nature has varying perceptions of morality, which lots conflict, creating disagreement that only incites violence. This pr... ...have consent in order to act. This essentially gives sovereign power to the people. This philosophy is also consistent with Lockes favor for a republican structure of government.The apparent difference seen between the political theories of Hobbes and Locke can be attributed to their differing views on the state of nature. The development of mankind as a selfish being living in a state of war and violently attempting to obtain equality naturally lead Hobbes to conclude that an authoritative power is needed to saturate order to chaos. On the other side of the spectrum, Lock molds the state of nature to be a state of peace, and attributing men to Reasonable creatures and consequently creates a exercise government where the people hold sovereign power. Essentially, these theories seem are a result of a pessimistic and optimistic framing of nature and humanity.

Gods VS Mortals :: essays research papers

There is only one way Destroy them all."     Lu fires burning eyes move slowly from one god to the next, hoping his harsh decree had convinced more of them to take his side. It had seemed like an eternity (which it very well could have been) since all the gods had garner together like this.This can not be the way, I still believe this would be an over reaction. Ranna said, waving her hand as if to throw by Lucans idea. What the mortals need is our guidance.      You cannot be seriously talking about the, elves Lucan scowled How can you be so passionate about the race that yellowed your fields, up rosed and murdered your followers, blush attacked you There is nothing in their heart but the love for wealth and power.     She glared back at him. That is your doings at work, Lucan. It was only when they broke on to the Flats of authority that you stopped enjoying their growing domination of Nithra.    & nbspWe all agree mortals have gone too far," Srill interrupted, knowing there was a need to interrupt before the program line went on further. "But the answer isnt to wipe away all of our work. It is only a few races that have gone this far. Perhaps a select purging instead of complete destruction."     Rook shook his head. "I have to agree with Lucan on this matter. Wiping them out is the only way."     "The answer is obvious," interrupted Cazil. "If my power was allowed to grow, the mortals would be in no position to challenge us. Fear will keep them in line, it always should have."     Kara roared. "Absurd Its proven that apart any one of us can be overcome by the mortals. It is our neglect that has brought this upon us. The solution must be one that we can all agree on."     "can you be too blur?" Lucan growled. "How can you not see that the mortals must be punished?"     "You ignore their honor," Marr countered. "They earned the right to exist.     "Right to exist?" Innok cackled. "Leave them to their selfs and they will destroy themselves in greed and hate. We should not kill them, but step to the side and let them waste them selfs."     "We dont have that kind of time," Ro speaks. "The planes are already weak, some have already been completely erased, our powers have grown too weary to hold them. We must strike back while we still can.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Essay --

Even in the short term, the wo handss movement is the detonator which willing explode neopatriarchal society from within. If allowed to grow and come into its own, it will become the permanent shield against patriarchal regression, the cornerstone of future modernity. Hisham Sharabi, Neopatriarchy IntroductionDuring the week long demonstrations at Tahrir feather, Egyptian women defied the socially accepted behaviors and opposed stereotypes. Oppressed by an autocratic regime that they deemed no longer effective women revolted along with the youth movement and effort unions during the Arab Spring of January 2011. Driven out of the public conversation women were subject to coordinated scare tactics by the government and on the streets of Cairo. No longer remain silent, Egyptian women fought for full integration into public life but they battle tradition, culture and religious attitudes closely gender roles. Almost every woman has experience some form of oppression. Even in western culture women challenge perceived gender roles too. During the 1963 March on Washington, African-American woman questioned leadership about their role in the March. Acknowledging the main focus of the March was about jobs and education. African-American women unwillingly accepted the subordinate role to further the discussion on stimulate relations. Repeatedly, women are expected to wait for equality and the discussion of womens rights. Deep seated societal attitudes about segregated gender roles keep women from participating politically and becoming full citizens. In this essay, I will first examine the impact of traditional gender roles on Egyptian women who participated during and after the Egyptian transformation of 2011, as well as, the role of African America... ...ssues of sexism would have to be addressed with the male leadership before going forward in the movement. After Tahrir SquareSegregation, voting rights, refusal to give up her bus seat galvanized the bus boycott s in Montgomery, Alabama ending bus segregation. Even Ella Baker Student Non-Violent Coordinating direction conducted the first lunch counter sit-in in 1960 by North Carolina AT&T students. As more people heard about the protests their partnership was met with same opposition-your voice is not needed here. Social behavior dictated an patriarchal attitude that relegated women to of In the United States but Egyptian women were mingling with men voices but Conclusion Revolutions are rare dramatic events that rapidly and violently transform political, social, and economic institutions from below.

Essay --

Even in the short term, the womens movement is the detonator which will explode neopatriarchal society from within. If allowed to grow and succeed into its own, it will become the permanent shield against patriarchal regression, the cornerstone of future modernity. Hisham Sharabi, Neopatriarchy IntroductionDuring the week long demonstrations at Tahrir Square, Egyptian women defied the socially accepted behaviors and inappropriate stereotypes. Oppressed by an autocratic regime that they deemed no longer effective women revolted along with the youth movement and labor unions during the Arab Spring of January 2011. Driven out of the everyday conversation women were subject to coordinated scare tactics by the government and on the streets of Cairo. No longer remaining silent, Egyptian women fought for full integration into creation life but they battle tradition, culture and religious attitudes about gender roles. Almost every woman has experienced some form of oppression. Even in we stern culture women challenge perceived gender roles too. During the 1963 March on Washington, African-American woman questioned leadership about their role in the March. Acknowledging the main sharpen of the March was about jobs and education. African-American women unwillingly accepted the subordinate role to further the discussion on race relations. Repeatedly, women are expected to wait for par and the discussion of womens rights. Deep seated societal attitudes about segregated gender roles keep women from participating politically and becoming full citizens. In this essay, I will first examine the impact of traditional gender roles on Egyptian women who participated during and after the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, as well as, the role of African America... ...ssues of sexism would have to be addressed with the male leadership before going forward in the movement. After Tahrir SquareSegregation, voting rights, refusal to give up her peck seat galvanized the bus boycotts in Montgomery, Alabama ending bus segregation. Even Ella Baker Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee conducted the first lunch counter go to in 1960 by North Carolina AT&T students. As more people heard about the protests their participation was met with same opposition-your voice is not compulsory here. Social behavior dictated an patriarchal attitude that relegated women to of In the United States but Egyptian women were mingling with men voices but Conclusion Revolutions are rarefied dramatic events that rapidly and violently transform political, social, and economic institutions from below.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Financial Modelling

pecuniary Modeling Discipline Guiding Principles A good monetary analyst has the discipline of adhering to a list of manoeuver principles to help retard that the development of the pecuniary model achieves the desired results. By following these simple steps, a pecuniaryanalyst should be able to progress a financial model that is simple, accurate and most importantly consistent, to help create confidence in a financial decision making process. Financial Modeling Discipline can be acquired in each 3 stages of the financial poser process Specification Stage instauration Stage wee-wee Stage Specification Stage 1. Be very clear on the effort involved and the dependencies before committing to deadlines the financial modeling exercise is usually on the critical path 2. Get the algebra right make sure all revenues, cash flow inwards and assets argon positive while expenses, cash outflows and liabilities are negative. This will ensure that we rarely use the minus sign in form ulae and can use the sum() function. 3. Avoid all calculations that will cause circular references. Design Stage 1.Ensure that each assumption is input only once in a financial model. 2. Define scenario variables clearly in a separate Scenario conductor section or work shred in the financial model. 3. Define the time unit that is to be used consistently throughout the financial model. 4. Group all assumptions and inputs into iodin sheet and state units clearly in the financial model. 5. Avoid executing complex calculations in the Output section of the financial model. 6. Build an Interface sheet if you are working with a financial model with multiple workbooks.Build Stage 1. Always note all assumptions, sources and calculation methods in the financial model for hereafter reference. 2. Avoid complicated macros in the financial model if possible macros make it difficult to follow logic, spot errors or amend the financial model, besides bloating the data file size. 3. Lay all finan cial model calculations in chronological order Avoid having calculations in one row refer to calculations in lower rows. 4. Do not try to do too much in one cell with a large complex calculation formula. Break the calculation into blocks.Lay the financial model calculations out in blocks, to enable copying formulae across columns or down rows saving time in developing and reviewing financial models. 5. All financial model calculation and output sections should be locked to avoid inadvertent data entry therein. 6. Include charts in the output section for easy understanding, analysis and auditing of the financial model. 7. Always keep back-ups preferably on separate disks and leave the autosave option on for your financial model workbook. 8. Stick to a consistent version labelling administration eg company xyz_2/2/09_V02_DC.Save several versions of your financial model each day and retain old versions. 9. Avoid jumping to conclusions / sharing results based on prelim financial mode l results. Common Mistakes in Financial Modeling While reviewing and auditing financial models, a good financial analyst should be alert to the cat valium types of errors that often plague financial models. These are often less ascribable to errors in Excel or other financial model applications you may be using, and more because of human error in formulating calculations or conversions in a financial model. Common Errors in Financial Modeling 1.Conversion factors (kilobytes to megabytes, monthly to annual, millionsto thousands, etc). 2. strand include in totals (certain rows not included). 3. Calculation formula not replicatedacross columns. 4. Wrong row references in calculation formula. 5. Wrong column references in startingtime period(each column should typically contain references only from that column). 6. Change in cell references in formulae referring to other workbooks. 7. Algebraic errors (wrong use of brackets, plus/minus errors). 8. Range limits not set (eg, having neg ativenumber of customers or negative distributor commission payments). . Hard coded dummy numbers / assumptions perpetuating in the financial model due to oversight. 3 Golden rules for Financial Analysts to Avoid Errors in Financial Models 1. Be diligent when building the financial model, a little concentration and attention to dot early on will save you a lot of time and work later.2. Ask another person not in the financial modeling police squad to conduct a detailed audit, very often a fresh pair of eyes may spot errors then arent lucid to someone whos been looking at the same spreadsheet for days or weeks on end. . Perform sanity checks on outputs through benchmarking exercises, always use your ordinary sense and business knowledge to ensure that the results of your financial model (e. g. individual product revenues or cost items, etc) are realistic and aligned with what you may take care them to be. Designing a Financial Model Making it Idiot Proof Always design a financia l model for people who did not build it and for people with limited understanding of financial modeling and analysis techniques.This will help you ensure the usefulness and relevance of the financial model, and preserve its giganticevity long after you have completed the financial modeling exercise. In each financial model workbook, you will typically need some or all of the following worksheets 1. Administration and documentation 2. Assumptions 3. Major blocks such as marketing or capital expenditure (CAPEX) 4. Calculation of revenues, costs, balance sheets, ratios, cashflows 5. Scenario managers and displaysTo enable modular team working, clarity in use and easy auditing, use a standard financial model design template and color codes developed specifically for your company, and ensure that everyone gets familiar with the standardized format. In that way, the entire company will have a single approach to formatting financial models. All users, be they aged executives or junior fi nancial analysts, will then be able to differentiate between cells in the financial model that are hard coded, calculations or outputs, and intepret different financial models from different teams without ambiguity.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Eco Friendly Constructions

WHAT IS ECO FRIENDLY CONST Eco-friendly, or ecological, wind is building a structure that is beneficial or non-harmful to the surroundings, and resource efficient. Otherwise known as green building, this case of construction is efficient in its use of local and renewable materials, and in the goose egg required to build it, and the pushing generated while being within it. Eco-friendly construction has developed in response to the knowledge that buildings have an often negative tinge upon our environment and our natural resources.This includes transporting materials hundreds or thousands of miles, which has a negative impact in the cogency required to transport them, and withal in emissions of hazardous chemicals from a poorly bearinged building that creates, and traps them. INTRODUCTION Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to a structure and using process that is environment completelyy accountable and resource-efficient throughout a buildings purport-cycle from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition.This requires close cooperation of the design team, the architects, the engineers, and the leaf node at all project stages. 1 The Green Building practice expands and escorts the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. 2Although new technologies argon constantly being developed to complement current practices in creating greener structures, the common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by Efficiently using vital force, water, and former(a)(a) resourcesProtecting occupant health and improving employee productivity Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation2 A exchangeable concept is natural building, which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally. 3 Other link topics include sustainable design and green architecture. Sustainability may be defined as partakeing the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. 4 Green building does not specifically address the issue of the retrofitting existing homes.Reducing environmental impact Green building practices aim to reduce the environmental impact of buildings, so the very first rule is the greenest building is the building that doesnt get built. New construction almost always degrades a building site, so not building is preferable to building. The second rule is every building should be as small as possible. The third rule is do not move over to sprawl (the tendency for cities to spread out in a disordered fashion). No guinea pig how much grass you put on your roof, no matter how many energy-efficient windows, etc. you use, if you contribute to sprawl, youve just defeated your purpose. Urban infill sites are preferable to suburban greenfield sites. Buildings account for a large fare of land. According to the subject field Resources Inventory, approximately 107 million acres (430,000 km2) of land in the United States are developed. The International Energy Agency released a publication that estimated that existing buildings are responsible for to a greater extent than 40% of the worlds total primary energy consumption and for 24% of global carbon dioxide emissions. 6 Goals of green buildingThe concept of sustainable schooling can be traced to the energy (especially fossil oil) crisis and the environment pollution concern in the 1970s. 7 The green building movement in the U. S. originated from the need and desire for more energy efficient and environmentally friendly construction practices. There are a number of motives for building green, including environmental, economic, and social benefits. However, modern sustainability initiatives call for an integrated and interactional design to both new construction and in the retrofitting of existing structures.Also known as sustainable design, this approach integrates the building life-cycle with distributively green practice sedulous with a design-purpose to create a synergy among the practices used. Green building brings together a vast array of practices, techniques, and skills to reduce and ultimately sink the impacts of buildings on the environment and human health. It often emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources, e. g. , using sunlight through passive solar, active solar, and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees through green roofs, pelting gardens, and reduction of rainwater run-off.Many other techniques are used, such as using forest as a building material, or using packed sit or permeable concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance replenishment of ground water. While the practices, or technologies, employed in green building are constantly evolving and may d iffer from region to region, fundamental principles persist from which the method is derived Siting and Structure Design Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, Materials Efficiency, indoor(a) Environmental Quality Enhancement, Operations and Maintenance Optimization, and Waste and Toxics Reduction. 89 The essence of green building is an optimization of one or more of these principles. Also, with the proper synergistic design, singular green building technologies may work together to produce a greater cumulative effect. On the aesthetic side of green architecture or sustainable design is the philosophy of intention a building that is in harmony with the natural frisks and resources surrounding the site. There are several key move in designing sustainable buildings specify green building materials from local sources, reduce loads, optimize systems, and generate on-site renewable energy.Life cycle assessment (LCA) A life cycle assessment (LCA) can help avoid a narrow outl ook on environmental, social and economic concerns10 by assessing a full dress of impacts associated with all cradle-to-grave stages of a process from extraction of raw materials through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling. Impacts taken into account include (among others) embodied energy, global warm potential, resource use, air pollution, water pollution, and waste.In terms of green building, the last few years have seen a shift away from a prescriptive approach, which assumes that certain(p) prescribed practices are better for the environment, toward the scientific evaluation of actual performance through LCA. Although LCA is widely recognized as the best way to evaluate the environmental impacts of buildings (ISO 14040 proffers a recognized LCA methodology), it is not yet a consistent requirement of green building rating systems and codes, despite the fact that embodied energy and other life cycle impacts are critical to the design of environmentally responsible buildings.The foundation of any construction project is rooted in the concept and design stages. The concept stage, in fact, is one of the major steps in a project life cycle, as it has the largest impact on cost and performance. 12 In designing environmentally optimal buildings, the objective is to minimize the total environmental impact associated with all life-cycle stages of the building project. However, building as a process is not as streamlined as an industrial process, and varies from one building to the other, never repeating itself identically.In addition, buildings are much more complex products, composed of a multitude of materials and components each constituting various design variables to be decided at the design stage. A variation of every design variable may affect the environment during all the buildings relevant life-cycle stages. 13 *Energy efficiency Green buildings often include measures to reduce energy c onsumption both the embodied energy required to extract, process, transport and build building materials and operating energy to volunteer services such as heating and power for equipment.As high-performance buildings use less operating energy, embodied energy has assumed much greater importance and may make up as much as 30% of the overall life cycle energy consumption. Studies such as the U. S. LCI Database Project 14 show buildings built in the beginning with wood will have a lower embodied energy than those built primarily with brick, concrete or steel. 15To reduce operating energy use, designers use details that reduce air leakage through the building envelope (the barrier amid conditioned and unconditioned space).They also specify high-performance windows and extra insulation in walls, ceilings, and floors. Another strategy, passive solar building design, is often implemented in low-energy homes. Designers orient windows and walls and place awnings, porches, and trees16 to shade windows and roofs during the summer while maximizing solar gain in the winter. In addition, effective window placement (daylighting) can provide more natural light and lessen the need for electric lighting during the day. Solar water heating further reduces energy costs.Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomass can significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building. Water efficiency Reducing water consumption and protecting water lineament are key objectives in sustainable building. adept critical issue of water consumption is that in many areas, the demands on the supplying aquifer exceed its ability to replenish itself. To the maximum extent feasible, facilities should increase their dependance on water that is collected, used, purified, and reused on-site.The protection and conservation of water throughout the life of a buildin g may be accomplished by designing for multiple plumbing that recycles water in toilet florescenceing. Waste-water may be minimized by utilizing water conserving fixtures such as ultra-low flush toilets and low-flow shower heads. Bidets help eliminate the use of toilet paper, reducing sewer traffic and increasing possibilities of re-using water on-site. Point of use water treatment and heating improves both water lumber and energy efficiency while reducing the amount of water in circulation.The use of non-sewage and greywater for on-site use such as site-irrigation will minimize demands on the local aquifer. 17 Materials efficiency Building materials typically considered to be green include lumber from forests that have been certified to a third-party forest standard, rapidly renewable plant materials akin bamboo and straw, dimension stone, recycled stone, recycled metal (see copper sustainability and recyclability), and other products that are non-toxic, reusable, renewable, an d/or recyclable (e. . , Trass, Linoleum, sheep wool, panels made from paper flakes, compressed earth block, adobe, baked earth, rammed earth, clay, vermiculite, flax linen, sisal, seagrass, cork, expanded clay grains, coconut, wood fibre plates, calcium sand stone, concrete (high and ultra high performance, roman self-healing concrete18), etc. 1920) The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) also suggests using recycled industrial goods, such as scorch combustion products, foundry sand, and demolition debris in construction projects 21 Building materials should be extracted and manufactured locally to the building site to minimize the energy imbed in their transportation. Where possible, building elements should be manufactured off-site and delivered to site, to maximise benefits of off-site manufacture including minimising waste, maximising recycling (because manufacture is in one location), high quality elements, better OHS management, less noise and ust. Waste reduction Green ar chitecture also seeks to reduce waste of energy, water and materials used during construction. For example, in California about 60% of the states waste comes from commercial buildings32 During the construction phase, one goal should be to reduce the amount of material going to landfills. Well-designed buildings also help reduce the amount of waste generated by the occupants as well, by providing on-site solutions such as compost bins to reduce matter going to landfills.To reduce the amount of wood that goes to landfill, indifferent(p) Alliance (a coalition of government, NGOs and the forest industry) created the website dontwastewood. com. The site includes a variety of resources for regulators, municipalities, developers, contractors, owner/operators and individuals/homeowners looking for information on wood recycling. When buildings reach the end of their useful life, they are typically demolished and hauled to landfills. Deconstruction is a method of harvesting what is commonly considered waste and reclaiming it into useful building material. 33 Extending the useful life of a structure also reduces waste building materials such as wood that are light and easy to work with make renovations easier. 34To reduce the impact on wells or water treatment plants, several options exist. Greywater, wastewater from sources such as dishwashing or washing machines, can be used for subsurface irrigation, or if treated, for non-potable purposes, e. g. , to flush toilets and wash cars. Rainwater collectors are used for similar purposes. Centralized wastewater treatment systems can be costly and use a lot of energy.An alternating(a) to this process is converting waste and wastewater into fertilizer, which avoids these costs and shows other benefits. By collecting human waste at the source and running it to a semi-centralized biogas plant with other biological waste, liquid fertilizer can be produced. This concept was demonstrated by a settlement in Lubeck Germany in the late 1990s. Practices like these provide soil with organic nutrients and create carbon sinks that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, offsetting greenhouse gas emission. Producing artificial fertilizer is also more costly in energy than this process. 35

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Father Steals Best: Crime in an American Family Essay

This particular story is about a family of criminals in Oregon and received direction throughout the United States and has been cited by politicians, law enforcement agencies, and researchers in criminology, and psychology. Dale Vincent Rooster Bogle, taught his children to steal, so that by age 10 his sons were already breaking into liquor stores or larceny tractor-trailer trucks. His daughters turned to petty crimes in order to support their drug addictions. By the time of his death in 1998, 28 of the Bogle clan had been convicted of crimes, including several of Roosters grandchildren. Tracey Bogle, the youngest of Roosters sons, is quoted as saying, Rooster raised us to be outlawsThere is a domino effect in a family like oursWhat youre raised with, you grow to become. You dont escape. The Justice Departments statistics show that approximately 47 percent of inmates in the state prisons have p atomic number 18nts or other close relatives who have also been incarcerated.The Justic e Department believes that ignoring this family cycle of criminality may be very difficult, and end up costing tax revenue payers an expediential amount of money. It is astonishing that given all the research that is done about other issues on criminals, there is either no research or very little research regarding this subject of family criminal activity. This Im sure is due to the limited availability of records that contain the criminal records of multiple generations of families. It is possible that with the fit research and funding, that reducing crime today may also reduce crime in the future.Moreover, research may underestimate the effects of policies that treat or deter criminal behavior by not taking into account the effect on future generations. Although there are studies that provide some render of intergenerational criminal correlations, there is no real focus on identifying why this relationship exists. Criminal behavior has always been a focus for psychologists due to the age old debate between nature and nurture. Is it the responsibility of an individuals genetic makeup that makes them a criminal or is it the environment in which they are raised that determines their outcome? There has been limited research regarding this debate which has resulted in a conclusion that both genes and environment do play a use of goods and services in the criminality of an individual.

Friday, May 24, 2019

All In The Name Of Honor Essay

Yale lecturer Joanne Freeman (2001), in her book, The Affairs of Honour, dissects the smart Republic through cultural microscopic lenses by focusing on the Founders personal applaud and reputation as the underlying factor for all semipolitical action in Americas inchoate democracy. The auhor strengthens her thesis as she explores with compelling narratives how the nations Founders behaved and acted, all in the name of personal honor, to an extent of reckless violence in prescribe to claim their rightful positions in the annals of narration.The most stunning account in the book is the renowned duel between then vice-president Col. Aaron Burr and Gen. black lovage Hamilton, former aide-de-camp to George Washington, stemming from a criticism allegedly made by Hamilton against Burr, saying the latter is, one who ought not to be trusted with the reins of government (Freeman, 2001, p. 6). By publishing articles on the American Citizen that were deemed insulting to his honor and repu tation, Burr eventually made the bold duel dare to Hamilton, who accepted, and lost his life in the end.In saying , as a forewarning to the reader, that we must concede that there was a larger logic underlying the duel, a belief so pixilated that it compelled men to hazard their lives (Freeman, 2001, p. 65), and proving later on that both men were compelled to risk their lives because of their own vanities, Freeman is actually telling the reader that both men, although great in their own respects, were too obsessed with personal honor to do anything of political significance. Freeman presents the Founders as alpha males out to satiate their personal egos and risking even their lives to switch off so.Freeman plays too much emphasis on looking at decisions at face value and ignoring to appreciate the political significance or principle behind them. For instance, when she says at various points in their political careers, even men of seemingly ironclad principles ilk Jefferson and Hamilton were rumored to have abandoned their supporters to join with former foes (Freeman, 2001, p. 269), she is cheapjack and unfairly painting a picture of treachery and backstabbing in the Founders as if to do so would be unforgivable betrayal to the American people.To Freeman, affairs of honor were a way out for great personalities of the New Republic to cope with the seemingly unstable political life, along with gossip networks, media, and duel as the ultimately resort. As there were no established political parties yet, politics was personal, alliances were unpredictable and in short, you could trust no one during this period. Therefore, the code of honour did more than track and monitor political conflict it formed the very infrastructure of national politics, providing a governing logic and weapons of war (Freeman, 2001, p.146). Dueling, like she says, was a trend. A certain reading of literature mentioned by David Waldstreicher (2002) in his article Founders Chic as Cul ture War appears to indicate a growing trend and acceptance in a cultural (re)writing of American history, from the traditional bottom-up approach to the top-bottom perspective, characterized by what I think, is an unfortunate emphasis on personalizing the progress and gains of the American revolution.While themselves admittedly more appealing than the traditional textbook-styled accounts of history, the accounts by Joseph Ellis, David McCullough and Joanne Freeman being reviewed by Waldstreicher have the effect of de-emphasizing the complex political process during those times to mere political squabbles and affairs of honour instead of an interplay of the yet fluid political divisions (governors) and the people (governed) and how these two groups came to terms in order to produce the democracy that America champions. sound judgment by the way Waldstreicher presents his views on the three, it is apparent that he agrees with some of the authors, not particularly on Freeman, on how individually, the Founders struggled with their own personal demons, but the former conservatively points out Ellis, in still adulating them, saying , Things fell apart, but charactergreatnessheld (Waldstreicher, 2002, p. 187).A culturalist also, he is careful to create a demarcation phone line between the views espoused by Freeman and his own, suggesting that Freeman is in a way reviving the Washington beltway vision of how politics operates, telling it from the perspective of the leader or the general, and throwing aside ideologies, partisanship, policy and instutional development. Freemans return to the dead white men perspective and exaggerated emphasis to humanize Founders in her book doubtless makes for a compelling story one that would make for a good history read.However, the extreme focus on the personal traits of the Founders in her book undermines historiography in general. I do not believe that men like Adams or Jefferson, could be that dense, especially while basking at the still-idealistic mood out of the gains of the revolution, would have feeling that only their personal honor was at stake. There is without a doubt several failings in character among the Founders, like all other human beings, but, like Waldstreicher, an appreciation of them should be based on the political significance of their actions, not on anything else.I possess no sacred reverence for the Founders in otiose of how I appreciate their individual contributions in concert with the actions of a vigilant people who, collectively, shaped America to what she is today, faults and all. By singling out the Founders and presenting evidence on how they backstabbed, deceived or shifted allegiances is to ignore that the same culture pervades in modern America and elsewhere as a political maneuver allowed in a democracy.By representing history solely on individual action and characters of the Founders is to brandish a reportage of events that generally undermines American heritage. References Freeman, J. B. (2001). Affairs of Honor National Politics in the New Republic. New Haven, CT Yale University Press. Waldstreicher, D. (2002). Founders Chic as Culture War. Radical History Review, 84, pp. 184-94.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Cultural Acceptance in Marjane Satrapi’s Persepolis Essay

Marjane Satrapis graphic original Persepolis is an autobiography that depicts her childhood up to her early swelled years in Iran during and after the Islamic revolution. Throughout the novel Satrapi incorporates character development, religion, and the conflict of freedom vs. confinement in order to develop a greater appreciation between deuce opposing eastern and westerly sandwich cultures. When analyzing the current relationship between eastern and occidental cultures, it seems as if tensions and conflict arise from a complex and layered set of problems. These issues range from political, economic and military stances to opposing cultural beliefs. The genesis of these issues arises in a lack of empathy for the people in from each one nation. Satrapi uses character development to form a persona skirt her childhood that makes the reader understand the clement feel of someone they would otherwise not affect to. The focus on her childhood establishes white.This innocence is what initially gives the reader the ability to view a different prospective with an open mindset. Satrapi also builds on this innocence with events in her childhood that can be appreciated by both eastern and western cultures. When she interacts with her friends they talk about romance and the opposite sex, dreaming of their wrong coming to save them. This is not something that is exclusive to young Iranian girls, but to all young girls. This similarity pulls the readers attention away from the feature that Marjane Satrapi is Iranian and builds a focus simply on that fact that she is a person with the same emotions and feelings as the reader. Satrapi also establishes the persona of her childhood through with(predicate) her personalised morals.Throughout Persepolis Satrapi is vehemently concerned with social injustice, and is seen as a very empathetic child. She gets mad at the suffering of those who are in a debase social class because she sees how tormented they are. In chap ter 3 of the novel Marjane takes a bath for hours in an attempt to understand how her grandfather felt in a water-filled torture cell. The reader incorporates the beliefs, morals, desires, fears, and overalllikeness that Satrapi conveys in her novel and gains a greater understanding of relationship all people possess through human nature.Although humanity shares a similarity in their greater design, there are still strong ideals that have existed since the foundation of civilized society. History has shown that the ideals formed through religion have become the most confrontational between differing cultures however, Satrapi chooses the general aspects of faith and devotion and uses them as a connection between eastern and western religion. The more obvious physical differences between religions that Satrapi presents are pointed out in Joseph Dardas article when he says In this set of panels1, Satrapi introduces the reader to a acquainted(predicate) image, an Iranian woman in tradi tional hijab. Satrapi describes how most women hated the outfit because of the heat and awkward fit, but also appreciated the sense of security it gave them. The hijab is something that the western audience cannot fully understand, however it is another example of how Satrapi is leading the readers to understanding Arabic culture.What stands out as the strongest tie between the east and west is the group of freedom and confinement that both cultures value and desire. When comparing the Iranian revolution and the American Revolution the desire for freedom is a shared stake the two nations fought to obtain. The American colonies sought-after(a) freedom from the British Empire and the corruption that was oppressing them. The Islamic Republic sought the same freedom from the oppression and corruption established in the Pahlavi dynasty, under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. Even though the two ideals grew into conflicting ideals the reader is able to appreciate a universal right of freedom. By connecting the desired independence sought by both revolutions, the reader sees the seemingly opposed political powers were founded by the same ideal. Satrapis parents desire for her education is what initially keeps the family from leaving. The reason then becomes the free-enterprise(a) control of the city and the constant fighting that prevents them. Eventually Satrapis parents see how dangerous it is and send her away, yet they make the choice to stay. It seems odd that her parents wouldnt get out with her.When analyzing the statistical data presented in the Middle East Research InformationProject, the casualties witnessed by Marjane and her family, rose near eight thousand just in their hometown (MERIP, 3). The expiry of Iranian citizens was not only brought by the fighting of the Mujahedeen rebel army, but anyone that was seen as a threat to their new ideals. Executions were common and always practise in public according to Keith Joness article, Tragedy of the Iranian R evolution. In the face of this present danger it is hard for the reader to comprehend the logic in wanting to stay amongst the violence. What Satrapi presents as reasoning to the reader is the fact that her parents have always lived in Iran. They dont know anything else. To evacuate raises a bulk more internal conflicts for her parents than it would for their daughter who has not had time to settle in one area. Ultimately the decision not to leave goes beyond cultural ties, educational reasoning, or even being forced to stay. There is a natural tendency for man to become complacent and turn a blind nub to the evadable. Its human condition. People do not wish to think about the possibility of their entire lives being changed for better or worse. Even though this aspect of conflict is not shared by all of her readers, Satrapis descriptions instill sympathy and draw on the readers pathos in order to connect their emotions.Since the genesis of mankind, people have identified and sough t their own uniqueness. Personal characteristics that define what they are viewed as. Mans uniqueness does not have to be a source of conflict, but rather something to be appreciated. This is the moral that Satrapi is conveying by connecting eastern and western regions. Satrapi use of character development, religion, and values of freedom as a common ground for an understanding to be built between these two cultures. Ultimately Satrapi wishes for the reader to use her story as a way to not only appreciate personal uniqueness, but appreciate the uniqueness of others as well. As a civilization moving towards this concept of acceptance, a new ability to maintain peace and harmony will be nurtured. It seems ironic that an author such as Marjane Satrapi would be so bold in her value of usual respect given all of the violence and persecution she endured throughout her early life however, it is those negative experiences that give her the desire to live in dedication towards equality.Works CitedDarda, Joseph. pictural Ethics. Theorizing the Face in Marjane Satrapis Persepolis 40.2Irans Revolution The First Year. Washington, D.C. Middle East Research Information Project, 1980. Print.Jones, Keith. World collectivized Web Site. Tragedy of the Iranian Revolution., 11Satrapi, Marjane. Persepolis. New York, NY Pantheon, 2003. Print.Annotated BibliographyDarda, Joseph. Graphic Ethics. Theorizing the Face in Marjane Satrapis Persepolis 40.2 (2013) 31-51. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.Journalist Joseph Darda discusses the implications of the Iranian revolution. In this article there is a focus on the political as well as social aspects that this conflict induced. This article was chosen because of its moderate stance on the Iranian revolution. Both sides of the conflict were presented.Irans Revolution The First Year. Washington, D.C. Middle East Research Information Project, 1980. Print.The Middle East Research Information Projects article presented statistical findings surroun ding war time casualties, Iranian economy, and global market as well as psychological research. It was chosen mainly for its non-bias scientific reports and statistical data.Jones, Keith. World Socialist Web Site. Tragedy of the Iranian Revolution., 11 Feb. 2009. Web. 01 Apr. 2014.Keith Jones focuses on class conflict and the consequences that the Iranian revolution has on the caste system in Iran during the late ordinal century. This article was chosen because of the cultural conflict Mr. Jonespresents, and how it relates to similar conflicts in PersepolisSatrapi, Marjane. Persepolis. New York, NY Pantheon, 2003. Print.Marjane Satrapis graphic novel Persepolis tells the story of her childhood and the trials she faced with her family during the Iranian Revolution. This hammer was chosen because of its focus on the implications and consequences of cross cultural conflict OutlineI Introductiona Background InformationThesis Throughout the novel Satrapi incorporates character development, religion, andthe conflict of freedom vs. confinement in order to develop a greater appreciation between two opposing eastern and western cultures.b TransitionII Body 1- Character Developmenta Main Point Character Developmentb Relation to novelc definitiond Text Support Descriptions of Marjanes childhood personaChapter 3- taking long bath (empathy)e Tie into thesis & transition to next topic one-third Body 2- Religiona Main Point Religion is seen as opposing, but still carries same virtues b Relation to novelc Explanationd Text Support Quote from Joseph Dardas articlee Tie into thesis & transition to next topicIV Freedom & Confinementa Main Point The desire to overcome oppression and obtain freedom is a foundation of both cultures. Marjane and familys lack of freedom inspires emotion from the reader.b Relation to novelc Explanationd Text Support Statistics from MERIPQuote from Keith Jones Articlee Tie into thesis & transition to next topicV Conclusiona Summarize main p oints and draw back to thesisb Reworded thesisc Personal moral learned/taught

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Comparison of Urban Sociological Theories Essay

Comparison of Urban Sociological Theories In order for an urban sociologist to discover How urban societies work, theories of urban ecology or policy-making economy are used as a guide in their research. Urban ecology refers to the importance of neighborly construction and social organization as shaping social life in the city. Urban ecologist concerns for social order, social gluiness, community ties and social unlikeiation offer pick out insight to how societies work (Kleniewski, 2001). Alternatively political economy stresses the use of power, domination and resources in the shaping of cities (Kleniewski, 2001).Urban sociologists theoretical approach to research questions is based on fundamental assumptions that they find most useful for understanding the operation of the social world. Therefore researchers using these different theories will ask different questions, examine different data and interpret their findings in different ways (Kleniewski, 2001). In the early years of 1910-1920, a time of social change and urban growth, urban sociologists in the United States, the Chicago School, were directly confronted by the diversity, liveliness and apparent fragmentation of urban life.The urban sociologists of the Chicago School drew a concern for order, cohesion and social relationships (Kleniewski, 2001). The founder of the Chicago School of urban sociology was Robert E. Park. He believed that cities are like living organisms, composed of interconnected parts and that each part relates to the organise of the city as a whole and to the other parts (Kleniewski, 2001). Park called his approach to urban life human ecology, a term used interchangeably with urban ecology. Human ecology studies the social norms which are rooted in the relationship between human existences and the environment or territories they inhabit, stressing the orderly interaction of interdependent parts of social life in urban areas (Kleniewski, 2001). Human ecologist, Louis Wirth shar ed with the theoretical antecedents of urban ecology, Tonnies, Durkheim and Simmel, the notion that social interactions in cities were different from social interactions in rural areas or small communities.He believed that social interactions in modern industrial cities were impersonal and fragmented. He believed that factors such as size, density, and heterogeneity were responsible for social relations found in cities (Kleniewski, 2001). This theory of human ecology was used to use up human behavior such as, lives of gang members, homeless people and immigrants and to study changing land uses over time in order to show how the different populations of the city adapt to and compete for territories (Kleniewski, 2001.In comparison to urban ecology, political economy is concerned with how urban societies work. Although, political economist developed different understandings and interpretations of how urban societies actually work. In the 1970s the city had many social problems which i nclude welfare, unemployment and tax inflations. Theorist of political economy, Marx, Engels and Weber viewed the city as a site of struggle due to unequal distribution of resources (Kleniewski, 2001).Therefore in contrast to the urban ecology theory of universe being immediately dependent on their environment, the theory of political economy stresses that the city relies not only on its environment but its social arrangement, economic and political functions. Also in contrast to urban ecology, residential patterns are not only influenced by humans just adapting to their natural environment but by economic inequalities. This leads to competition. In contrast to urban ecology, competition not just among groups for space but among groups for obtain of economic resources.Political economists theorize that social norms, in contrast to urban ecology are not only influenced by size and density of the population but also influenced by the values of dominant groups (Kleniewski, 2001). Th ese struggles or social forces help shape urban patterns and urban social life. Therefore, class, social status, political power, racial and ethnic conflicts also play a major role in shaping the city (Kleniewski, 2001). The Political Economy Perspective

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Bite Mark Analysis

Criminal themes many times call for the examination of evidence that can tie a suspect or victim to a curse scene or to angiotensin converting enzyme another. These physical traces frequently include blood and other bodily fluids, hair, fibers, and even cut tag. Here we will focus our charge to the latter and its accuracy, as it applies to the field of forensic science referred to forensic odontology or forensic dentistry. rhetorical odontology is the field of forensic science dealing with the recognition of curious attributes present in each individuals alveolar composition. 1 This branch of forensics relies heavily on extensive and detailed knowledge of the teeth, jaws, and dental anatomy have by a dentist. In addition to this knowledge, the forensic dentist must be well-versed in the interpretations of radiographs, pathology, charting, and types of dental treatment. The forensic dentist is dutifully responsible for the straitlaced handling, assessment, and evaluation of dental evidence in the name of justice. The dentist is the key to identification based upon the distinctive features present in the dental structures of each individual. recognition of deceased individuals who cannot be place by other means, identification of human remains, identification of victims in mass fatalities, assessment of keenness mark patterns, and age devotion employ teeth ar all part of the role of forensic odontologists as well. 2 Identification of an assailant by comparing a record of their teething with a record of a bite mark left on a victim and the presentation of bite mark evidence in motor hotel as an expert witness are similarly done as part of the job.Bite mark comparison is one of the major and newer parts of this forensic discipline that has been evolving since the 1970s and has played a major role in many cases and the convictions of many criminal including the infamous Ted Bundy who was convicted solely on evidence of a bite mark analysis. Howeve r, recently, there has been a lot of debating around the accuracy of a bite mark comparisons and if it can truly assist in accurately identifying suspect as the biter in an attack. For example, in 1991 Ray Krone, a former letter carrier with come forward a criminal record, honorably discharged from the U.S. Air squash was charged with taking the life of a Phoenix cocktail waitress, Kim Ancona. A body examination revealed that she had been stabbed eleven times and bitten on the left breast and on her neck. Forensic evidence, or lack of it, indicated that there were no fingerprints and other bodily fluids although there was indication that she had been sexually assaulted. There was little evidence that tied Krone to the plague except for evidence of the bite mark on the victims breast, which a state forensic odontologist, Dr. Raymond Rawosn, said matched his very distinct teeth.The bite mark testimony of Dr. Rawson convince the jury that Krone was guilty and he was convicted. 3 Dur ing the time of prosecution, forensic DNA technology was not generally available, but once it was, Ray Krone was proved innocent of the crime. A DNA test not only established that he was not involved in the fatal stabbing, but that also identified the true perpetrator a person already incarcerated on another unrelated offense. After being cleared by DNA, Ray Krone walked out of the Arizona State Penitentiary at Yuma on April 8, 2002, a free man. 4 In another case, Ricky Amolsch, 38, ended up in jail for ten months everyplace a mistake that a forensic dentist made. His girlfriend, Jane Marie Fray was gruesomely stabbed twenty-two times and an electrical cord was wrapped tightly around her neck. She was also bitten near her left ear. Amolsch was arrested, photographed and fingerprinted. The chief forensic odontologist for Wayne and Oakland Counties, Dr. Allan Warnicks claims of a bite mark match persuaded the district judge to sign a capital warrant.The previous hearing relied on this evidence alone with the forensic dentist, Dr Warnick, giving a compelling testimony. Since Amolsch was not eligible for bond, he had to stay in jail until his trial, and during that time, he lost his home, his savings and his children. 5 After one of Warnicks other cases was challenged, officials re-examined Amolschs case. Dr. John Kennedy, another forensic dentist, reviewed the case and gave a second opinion that it was someone else, not Amolsch, who had bitten Frays face. ii other forensic dentists agreed and Amolsch was released from jail.It is true that a human bite mark inflicted by an attacker on the skin of a victim whitethorn leave a definitive identifiable pattern that can be identified as being made by a certain pay off of teeth. If a suspect is apprehended his teeth are reproduced by taking impressions of the teeth and pouring plaster into the impression, thus producing a plaster model. The plaster models of his or her teeth are and so put on a scanner and scanned to make a digital image. A tracing of the biting edges of the teeth is then made either using the omputer or tracings from the printed image. This tracing is then superimposed on the bite mark photo, either manually or electronically using a scanned image of the bite mark, to determine if a match can be made. 6 Bite mark analysis is based on two postulates a) the dental char portrayaleristics of anterior teeth involved in biting are unique amongst individuals, and b) this asserted uniqueness is transferred and recorded in the injury. 7 However, some bites are forceful decorous to leave a good impression, others are not.A bite might penetrate the skin, but often only leaves bruisingand sometimes the blood marks of a bruise are mistaken for the impression of a tooth. It also seems to be the case that skin gets distorted when bitten or the teeth slide during the act of biting. 8 Furthermore, the level of distortion tends to increase after the bite mark was made. A studies suggest tha t for the bite mark to be accurately analyzed, the body must be examined in exactly the same position it was in when the bite occurred which can be a difficult if not an impossible task to accomplish.In addition, bite mark analysis is also controversial because dental profiles are subject to change. The loss and/or chipping of teeth, or the exchangeation of arch configuration with a variety of procedures, such as the use of braces, is common in human populations. The onset of oral diseases such as dental caries has been shown to alter the arch and tooth configuration and must be taken into account when comparing a dental profile to the bite mark after a pregnant amount of time has passed since the mark was made. 9 All of these variables affect the validity of a bite mark analysis and trying to identify an biter through the uniqueness of his or her dentition. One particular case that highlighted the lack of uniqueness in bite marks involved two suspects accused of attacking a man that had preserve a bite mark injury. Two separate forensic dentists, one representing the prosecution and one the defense, were brought in to analyze the mark. They reported conflicting results. One set up the mark to come from suspect A and the other said it was from suspect B.This disagreement resulted from the fact that even though the two suspects had dental features making them unique, the bite mark itself was not detailed enough to reflect them. Therefore, the mark could have reasonably come from either of the men10. The equivocal outcome demonstrated in the case emphasizes the difficulty in proving uniqueness. In conclusion, not all bite marks have the level of forensic value necessary to identify just one individual. Now, individual characteristic within a bite mark or in a persons dentition is a distinguishing feature, trait, or pattern.Individual dental characteristics are reported to be features that are unique to an individual variation within a defined group. The pre sence of worn, fractured or restored teeth is valued as unique features. If a bite mark possesses the reflection of such a feature(s), the degree of confidence in a match increases. It is actually counter-intuitive to assume enamel chips, fractures, and dental restorations are always inherently unique. The shape of human teeth is quite constant in nature and their changes over time are based on common events.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Classification of Shoes

in that location are more an(prenominal) people, such as myself, who collect raiments for the sake of collecting them. With various styles and uses, many individuals arrive at a disposition of fit outs to choose from. I prefer to classify my shoe collection into three separate categories, based on function. Each section has their specific uses which I define as excogitate shoes, curry shoes, and sneaker type shoes. Classifying your shoe collection into categories can be very honorable to keep organized, and saves me time when I am getting ready to leave the house. My first kinsfolk is my work shoes.My work shoes all resemble work boots and/or hiking shoes, and may be steel-toed boots. I resembling to stomach a work shoe category because I enjoy having a various shoe for everyday of the week. I dont have a strict uniform code at work, so I can change what outfits and shoes I wear from day to day. It is convenient having a category for my work shoes because of my various jobs in warehousing. I also have a category of dress shoes because I enjoy going out when I get the chance. I have a large variety of clothes in my wardrobe, so I also like to have a variety of dress shoes to choose from.If I want to wear a button-up tog with black dress pants, I know exactly where to find my black dress shoes. If I did non have this category of shoes, then I probably would be stressed having to find the perfect brace to match with my clothes for a night out. My final category is my sneaker type. I love Jordan and Nike brands therefore, it is all important(p) to obtain as many pairs as I can. I like to have every coloration and style as soon as they are released on the market. I keep them organized in their original boxes. I love my sneakers the most out of the three categories.Although there are many slipway that a person can classify their shoe collection, I like to categorize my shoes by work shoes, dress shoes, and sneaker type shoes. My work shoes allow m e to have a different pair for everyday of the week, which is convenient when I have to work many jobs. I like having my dress shoes in case there is an unexpected night out, so I keep many options to select from. I also love having different sneaker type shoes, such as Nike and Jordan brands. Classifying your shoe collection into categories can be helpful in keeping organized.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Night World : Secret Vampire Chapter 16

You obligate got to be kidding, Poppy express.Phil just gaped.No. Im perfectly serious. Youre witches of thesecond kind. Remember what I told you?There are the kind of witches that acknowledge theirheritage and get trained-and the kind that dont.Who just have powers. And mankinds conjure that kind-Psychics James chorused with her. Telepaths.Clairvoyants, he went on alone. There was something in his voice between laughing and crying.Poppy, thats what youare. Thats why you picked up on telepathy so quickly. Thats why you had clair voyant dreams.And thats why Phil h spike heel me, Poppy verbalize.Oh, no, Phil said. Not me. Come on.Phil, youre twins, James said. You have the same ancestors. Pace it, youre a witch. Thats why I couldnt control your mind.Oh, no,Phil said. No.He flopped choke off in his seat. No,he said again, only more weakly. exactly whose side do we get it from? Poppy wondered.Dads. Of course. The voice from the covertseatwas precise faint.Well, that would seeml ogical, but-Its the truth. Dont you remember how Dad wasalways talking closely seeing weird things? Havingdreams about things before they happened? And,Poppy, he heard you yell in yourdream. When you were calling for James. James heard it, and I heardit, and Dad heard it, too.Then that settles it. Oh, and it explains early(a)things about all of us-all those times weve had feelingsabout things-hunches, whatever. Even youhave hunches, Phil.I had one that James was creepy, and I wasright.PhillAnd perhaps a hardly a(prenominal) others, Phil said fatalistically.I knew it was James driving up this afternoon. I archetype I just had a fine ear for car engines.Poppy was shivering with delight and astonishment, but she couldnt quite understand James.James was absolutely beaming. Filled with unbelieving agility that she could feel want streamers andfireworks in the air. What, James?Poppy, dont you see? James actually poundedthe steering wheel in joy. It means that even beforeyou became a vampire, youwere a Night Person.Asecret witch. You have e real right to know about the Night population. You be ample there.The world turned upside down and Poppy couldnt breathe. At last she whispered. Oh . . .And webelong together. nought can separate us.We dont have to hide.OhPoppy whispered again. Then she said,James, pull the car over. I want to kiss you.When they were in motion once more, Phil said, But where are you two going away to go now? Poppycant have it off home.I know, Poppy said softly. She had accepted that.There was no going back for her the old life wasover. Nothing to do but build a new one.And you cant just wander around from place toplace, Phil said, doggedly persistent.We wont, Poppy said calmly. Well go to Dad.It was perfect. Poppy could feel James think, Ofcourse.They would go to her father, the always-late, always-impractical, always-affectionate parent. Herfather the witch who didnt know he was a witch.Who probably thought he was crazy when his powersac ted up.Hed give them a place to stay, and that was all they needed, really. That and each other. The whole Night World would be open to them, whenever theywanted to explore it. maybe they could come backand visit Thea sometime. Maybe they could dance rue of Thierrys parties.If we can findDad, that is, Poppy said, struck by sudden alarm.You can, Phil said. He flew out last night, buthe left an address. For the first time.Maybe somehow he knew, James said.They rode for a while, and then Phil cleared his throat and said, You know, I just had a thought. I dont want any part of the Night World, you understand-I dont carewhat my heritage is. I just wantto live like a human-and I want everybody to bedear on that.Were dear, Phil, James interrupted. Believeme. Nobody in the Night World is going to force youin. You can live like a human all you want as long as you avoid Night People and keep your mouth shut.Okay. Good. But heres my thought. I still dontapprove of vampires, but it occurs to me that maybetheyre not as completely bad as they seem. I mean,vampires dont treat their food any worsened than humans do. When you think of what we do to cows at least they dont breed humans in pens.I wouldnt bet on it, James said, suddenly grim.Ive heard rumors about the olddays.You always have to argue, dont you? But my other thought was that youre part of Nature, and Nature just is what it is. Its not always pretty, but well, its Nature, and there it is. He suffer upglumly, Maybe that doesnt make any sense. It makes sense to me, James said, entirely serious. And-thanks. He paused to look back at Philinacknowledgment. Poppy felt a sting behind hereyes. If he admits were part of Nature, she thought,then he doesnt believe were unnatural anymore.It meant a lot.She said, Well, you know, Ivebeen thinking, too.And it occurs to me that maybe there are otherchoices for feeding besides just jumping on humans when they dont convey it. Like animals. I mean, isthere any reason their bloo d wont work?Its not the same as human blood, James said.But its a possibility. Ive fed on animals. Deer aregood. Rabbits are okay. Possums stink.And then there mustiness be somepeople whod bewill donors. Thea was a donor for me. We could ask other witches.Maybe, James said. He grinned suddenly. Iknew a witch back home who was verywilling. Nameof Gisele. But you couldnt ask them to do it everyday, you know. Youd have to give them time to recover.I know, but maybe we could alternate. Animals one day and witches the next. Hey, maybe even werewolves on weekendsId rather bite a possum, James said.Poppy socked him in the arm. The point is, maybewe dont have to be horrible bloodsucking monsters.Maybe we can be decentbloodsucking monsters.Maybe, James said quietly, almost wistfully.Hear, hear, Phil said very seriously from theback.And we can do it together, Poppy said to James.He took his eyes off the highway to smile at her. Andthere was nothing wistful about his gaze. Nothingcool or my sterious or secretive, either.Together, he said out loud. And mentally headded, Icant wait. With that telepathy of yoursyourealize what we can do, dont you?Poppy stared, then felt an effervescent rush that almost piece of cake her out of the car. Oh, James-do youthink?Im certain. The only thing that makes exchanging blood so special is that it enhances telepathy. But you dont needany enhancementyou little dreamer.Poppy sat back to try and still her heart.They would be able to join their minds again. Anytime they wanted. She could imagine it, creation sweptinto Jamess mind, feeling him surrender histhoughts to hers. coming together like two drops of water. Together in a waythat humans could never know.I cant wait, either,she told him. Ithink Im going tolike being a witch.Phil cleared his throat. If you guys want someprivacy.. .We cant have any, James said. Not with youaround. Obviously.I cant help it, Phil said with his teeth.Youre the ones whore yelling.Were not yelling. Youre sn ooping.Both of you give it a rest, Poppy said. But she felt warm and glowing all over. She couldnt resistadding to Phil, So, if youre willing to give us someprivacy, that means you trust James alone withyour sister.I didnt saythat.You didnt have to, Poppy said.She was happy.It was very late the next day. Almost midnight, infact. The witching hour. Poppy was standing in a place shed thought shed never see again, her mothers bedroom.James was waiting outside with a carload of stuff,including one large suitcase of Poppys CDs, smuggledfor them by Phil. In a few minutes James and Poppywould be heading for the East Coast and Poppysfather.But first, there was something Poppy had to do.She glided quietly toward the king-size bed, making no more noise than a shadow, not disturbing either of the sleepers. She stopped by her mothersstill form.She stood looking down, and then she spoke withher mind.I know you think this is a dream, Mom. I know youdont believe in spirits. But I had to tell you that Im allright. Im all right, and Im happy, and even if you dontunderstand, enchant try to believe. Just this once, beieve in what you cant see.She paused, then added, Ilove you, Mom. I alwayswill.When she left the room, her mother was stillasleepandsmiling.Outside, Phil was standing by the Integra. Poppyhugged him and he hugged back, hard.Goodbye, she whispered. She got into the car.James stuck his hand out the window toward Phil.Phil took it without hesitation.Thank you, James said. For everything.No, thank you.Phil said. His smile and his voicewere both shaky. appropriate care of her. . . and of yourself. He stepped back, blinking.Poppy blew him a kiss. Then she and James droveoff together into the night.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

New York’s Midtown North

New Yorks Midtown North is do up of several precincts, with one unique in the city the CPP, or Central car park Precinct. The precinct is crustal plate to 42 species of birds year round, with up to 300 species sighted there at various seasons, and there argon similarly squirrels, birds, fish, rabbits, turtles, frogs and other animals. There be non, however, any gay residents. There is an enormous amount of human activity occupying the 840 acres of land and 150 acres of water. In addition to 58 miles of pedestrian paths, 6 miles of vehicle drives and almost 5 miles of bridle paths, there are overly world-class attractions, including1. Tavern on the Green Restaurant5. Loeb Boathouse (miniature sailboat club)11. Bethesda Terrace and Fountain14. The Metropolitan Museum of Art (NYPD entanglement site)The greens itself was knowing in 1858 by Frederick Law Olmstead and Calvert Vaux, two giants of architecture of the period. The nations first designated public park, Central Park i s set(p) out so that, even when the park is full of people and events, there are hidden, quiet places as well as open fields. Although between 16 and 20 million people visit the park each year, it is possible to feel completely alone with nature among the parks 26,000 trees. (One can also play tennis on 30 courts, or ball on 26 ball fields or swimming in a pool at the northern send away, or ride a merry-go-round not far from the Central Park Zoo.) (NYPD Web site)In addition, the Delacorte Theatre has Shakespeare in the Park from mid June through the end of August each year. The Central Park Summerstage, located at Rumsey Playground E. 72 St. and the East Drive, has exone grade performances from June through the beginning of August on Saturdays and Sundays at 3 pm. The New York Grand Opera has kick performances at various times throughout the summer(NYPD Web site).It seems that of all the precincts in New York City, the CPP is unequivocally appropriate for Problem-Oriented Polici ng.In addition, because of New Yorks position as a world city and after 9/11, the NYPD has also benefited from learning how to blow up, a tactic that can be invaluable in a precinct where incidents are in all likelihood to happen at odd times at specific locations. Surging has lately been perfected for putative(prenominal) terrorist activities At least three times a day, New Yorks intelligence division sends 100 officers to buzz a specific location that their information suggests could be a target. Its called a surge (Montaigne, 2005). When a surge happens, officers spend the five or six hours after it fanning out into the neighborhood, shops and subway, asking questions and looking for anything suspicious.In 2004 and so far in 2005, there go been no murders in Central Park, and but one screw up in 2005. Robbery, however, has increased, with none 6 in 2005 to date, and 4 in 2004. Felonious assault is tweak ho3wever, from 4 in 2004 to 2 in 2005 to date. There was one burglary in 2004, none in 2005 to date. Grand thieving is also may be down for the year. In 2004 there were 11, with 7 in 2005 to date.Citywide, the murder rate is down, from 184 in 2004 to 161 in 2005 to date, for a 12.5 percent decrease at current rates. Rape is also down, from 627 in 2004 to 585 in 2005 today, a 6.7 percent rate of change. Robbery was up, however, from 7,638 for all of 2004 to 7,690 to date in 2005. Felonious assaults were down from 5,842 in 2004 to 5,430 t date in 2005, for a decrease of 7 percent. Burglaries were also down, from 9.981 in 2004 to 7,767 in 2005 to date, a 13.5 percent decrease. Grand larceny citywide was also down, although by just 1.8 percent, from 15,258 in 2004 to 14,976 in 2005 to date (NYPD Compstat).These statistics are surprising, in view of the difficulties inherent in patrolling Central Park. In 1965, poet Robert Lowell published a poem called Central Park that seemed to expose precisely what was happening then.each landscaped crag, each skin r ashhides a policeman with a club (Quoted by Vitullo-Martin, 2003).Vitullo-Martin noted that design ele manpowerts that boostered make the park a refuge from the city-secluded woodlands, hidden coves, paths that curve and dip from sight, Lowells flowering shrubs-also made the park hard to protect or patrol. Central Parks fame and beauty made it a prized site for concerts, protests, marches, rallies and celebrations. But the huge crowds also attracted crime (2003).Arguably, the component that made the difference between then and now can be attributed to the characteristics of Problem-Oriented Policing. Compstat is an integral part of that strategy, masking police captains at a glance where the trouble spots are, both geographically and in price of types of crime. According to Moore (2005), Problem-oriented policing ( show up) is a police management philosophy that entails SARA scanning to identify, specify, and describe specific problems to include analytic thinking in which the c auses of the identified problems are explored fully and response that refers to the search for tailor made solutions to remove the specific or general causes of the problems through implementation of concepts supported by assessment concerning the process where the solutions implemented are evaluated in terms of effectiveness and strategies. Although Moores definition sounds overly analytical, in fact, POP depends for success on all the buzzword tactical maneuver of modern business values, ethics, communication, vision and empowerment.Glassoock, writing in the FBI Journal in 2001, noted that although POP initiatives have had an excellent affect on external, end-product issues-that is, reduction of crime-it seems prudent and appropriate to also apply the concept to immanent problems.Glassoock contends that the likelihood of success with the end product is much influenced, if not driven, by the organizations internal constitution (2001). A department must, he says, attend to interna l issues with thoughtful deliberation. In addition, he recommends that so-called outsiders much(prenominal) as citizens and business leaders be invited to contribute to initiatives, and goes so far as to say that To the extent that a police department remains open to the inclusion of these individuals, the likelihood of successful internal problem-solving increases (2001). As noted, successful internal operations-including communication and empowerment, especially-are requirement to producing the end-product, lower crime rates.New York City and especially the CCP, are heavy involved in just such efforts.Chief among its programs are an Auxiliary Police unit of measurement consisting of men and women from 17 to 60 years of age. They patrol the park in uniform acting as the eye and ears of the police. There are 42 members, whose work is supplemented by the work of 42 Parkwatchers, concerned citizens who keep a watchful eye on the park. When criminal activity is observed they repor t it to the police (NYPD Web site). It is unequivocal that CCP, perhaps more than other city precincts, interacts frequently and effectively with non-officer personnel who are trusted with strategic work.Another such outfit is the Roadrunners Safety Patrol. These helpers patrol in pairs and carry interwatch radios there are 72 of them. An additional 70 New York Skaters Association members are also enlisted to provide information to the precinct (NYPD Web site). peradventure the most famous of the groups assisting the CCP is the Guardian Angel Patrol. There are 61 Guardian Angels prepare and enlisted.An essential part of the POP program is the Park Enforcement Patrol, or PEP. Established by the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation, it is a unformed patrol with the mission of providing safer parks, encouraging the public in the proper use of parks and disapprove the misuse and destruction of park property. During the busy weekend and summer periods, and during all special events such as concerts and races, PEP officers patrol the park to help people enjoy the event and to keep order. If park users drop dead ill or are injured, the PEP officer will provide first aid and indicate an ambulance and police. People in trouble and in need of assistance look for PEP officers. These specially trained officers also assist the N.Y.P.D. by enforcing persona of emotional state violations in the park (NYPD Web site).Working with them is the only volunteer ambulance service in Central Park, the Central Park Medical Unit, which responds to accidents involving park users, bicyclists, rollerbladers, joggers, etc.. The Central Park Medical Unit assists the N.Y.C.E.M.S. (NYPD Web site).The POP success doesnt depend entirely on uniformed and/or trained volunteers, however. The CCPs Robbery Reduction Unit consists of one Sergeant and five Police Officers who are deployed at robbery prone locations (NYPD Web site).Non-police work also becomes part of the mission in a POP-dri ven social unit such as CCP. For instance, in concert the Central Park Precinct Youth Officers and Community Police Unit conduct truancy sweeps (NYPD Web site).While trying to keep kids in school, the precinct also tries to keep bicycles in the hands of their rightful owners. CCP runs a bicycle registration program in an effort to deter thefts (NYPD Web site).A unique N-Force is a unit consisting of one sergeant and three police officers that focuses on quality of life conditions they are deployed at areas that the precinct commander designates as priority locations (NYPD Web site).In its dialog with the community, CCP also has a Community Council that meets with police officials to seek ways to solve local problems the CCP council has 146 active members. Finally, CCP participates in a Thanksgiving Food Drive and a Winter Coat Drive, as well as Toys for Tots to help children in disadvantaged families (NYPD Web site).The first item on the NYPD mission statement is To protect life an d property, reduce crime, improve the quality of life while dealing with the citizens of this city with courtesy, professionalism, and respect (NYPD Web site). It is patent both from the crime statistics in this global playground and the number, range and type of community and quasi-police organizations that communications, values, vision and empowerment are working in this highly unusual precinct, in which there are no residents, but only visitors of every possible type and intent.Glassoock notes that since the 1980s, law enforcement agencies have applied the concept of problem-oriented policing to many community problems, such as alcohol-related crimes, burglaries, graffiti, sex offenses, and trespassing all of which a precinct that was completely park and special-use structures would be prone to have. Glassoock notes that Because POP emphasizes solving a problem as the dominant decision-making mode, officers attaining management positions must rethink their decision-making style s learned in the first place in their careers. They must consider that the appropriateness of different decision-making styles varies depending upon whether officers are responding to calls or solving problems (2001). It is apparent that CCP has been successful.

Friday, May 17, 2019

Green Purchasing and Procurement Strategies

The yield mainly discussed sustain sufficient procurance by applying a highly effective and long-term investment strategy which is called spurt purchasing. This is defined as the approach to purchasing products and services that considers the economical, environmental and social impacts of buying choices (Little, discolour Purchasing & procural Strategies 1). It includes best value-for-money considerations applying the price, quality, availability and functionality of a required product or service.The thrust for green purchasing in the go with is spearheaded by regulation which is mainly the European Union and national brass policies. done the expectation of the customers, consumers and other legitimate jeopardizeholders and most importantly the tangible and beneficial effect of sustainable procurement in the trading which are the cost reduction, lowered risk to business, provides options through and through innovation and preferences by potential customers, insurers, cred it sources and others. (Little, parking area Purchasing & Procurement Strategies 2).This conclusion is generated from the survey conducted from major Italian returns companies by Arthur D. Little. The companies perceived the three most valuable benefits of a sustainable procurement system to be protection from environmental risk or disruption attraction of environmentally sensitive customers reinforcement of discoloration reputation. (Little, Green Purchasing & Procurement Strategies 2). The approach to sustainable procurement was also tackled as well as the influence of the chief executive officers overall accountability which can be used as wider strategical choice of a company.The role of the CEO and his accountability to the overall performance of the business, the overall response of the stake holders expectations and his duty to build the value of the company through cost reduction, minimizing risks and protection of revenue. The CEO cannot transfer the accountability for sustainable procurements but can typically delegate responsibility for making it follow in the Chief Procurement Officer. (Little, Green Purchasing & Procurement Strategies 3).Three strategic choices for sustainable procurement are the following Reactive- the company is forced to comply by regulation or loss of business Compliant- allows revenue protection but fails to encourage new revenue generation Anticipative- systematic evaluation of the company and procurement options followed by implementation of measures designed to maximize the business benefits delivered through procurement. (Little, Green Purchasing & Procurement Strategies 4).The strength of the publication is that it tackled a lot of ideas regarding sustainable procurement and offered a comprehensive explanation establish on research and survey conducted from Italian Utilities companies. Contact information for possible additional clarifications was cited. There were in any case many points for strategic procurement that the explanation of green purchasing is not explained fully. It is not explained in tip how an organization can implement green purchasing.The publication stresses on the achievement of sustainable procurement through green purchasing power and the role of the CEO in the organization to realize this goal. To be able to effectively attain a more sustainable procurement is through the identification of The stakeholders expectations The business breathing in for the way of doing business The barriers that prevent the company from adopting a sustainable procurement strategy The comparison amid the company and the other organizations performance in the field of sustainable procurement. Little, Green Purchasing & Procurement Strategies 7). Green purchasing is highly recommended by experts to be implemented in the company because it offers a lot of advantages in terms of cost reduction and also revenue generation which would result to sustainable procurement in the long run. 1 Works Cited Little, Arthur D. Green Purchasing Power Cost Reduction and Revenue Generation through Sustainable Procurement, 2008. Web

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Global Security: Weapons of Mass Destruction Essay

Since the Cold War, introducing atomic artillery units into the globular body of rules was unitary of the biggest changes that created a world(a) phenomenon even after the year 1945 to the contemporary world-wide political relation. It has shaped the crucial aspects of the strategic deedions of the articulates and transformed the world(prenominal) remains. After experiencing two catastrophic global conflagrations, the global outline has not triggered major wars and intra-regional wars over the post-Cold War period. However, utilising atomic weapons to prevent world war should be treated with great attention as there ar prospects of thermo thermonuclear proliferation globally.The traditional definition of gage is beingness freedom from danger and risk. However, in this context of the global politics, it perceives tribute as something that makes protection and creates spirit of safeness. Thus through and throughout this essay, it depart discuss the meaning of certif icate in the means of how it was created through the captivate of nuclear/ weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Firstly, it will analyse the changing attitudes of strategic studies post-Cold War in the move upments of nuclear technology proliferation.Moreover, it will critically discuss the influences of the nuclear weapons towards the security system vex in coincidences to wherefore put forwards button up seek to give voice weapon of mass destruction (WMD) in the contemporary global politics. reasonableness the terror and recognising of the destruction capabilities of nuclear weapon in the contemporary era can be a challenge to the people of today as the last nuclear weapon detonated in 1945. Subsequently, it is important to name the historical context of WMD development and pack the intention of the WMD. 1940 was the year of the birth of the commencement ceremony nuclear arsenal named as Ivy Mike.American physicists and their introduceer Edward teller developed nuclear armaments that was first detonated in 1945, (Balogun, 2011 p. 160) which was defined as extreme scale immediate mass destruction. The strategic studies of the international relation progress to drastically changed in the past 20 years. Steve Smiths The increasing insecurity of warranter Studies Conceptualising protective covering in the Last Twenty Years (1999) examines some aspect of security study literary works in the last two decades. Smith addresses his main analyses of the changed perspective of the core subject nitially concentrated on solid ground and armed forces to human social security.His view of what it is called the security studies in the contemporary system, moves away from the concentrating on the aspect of the military, WMD as the dominant issue but argues that the crucial issue is human security. On the other hand, Andrew ONeil (2009) approaches the study in different perspective as he argues that WMD continues to act as the central role in international r elations and in security studies as still in the contemporary system numerous conjure ups continues to value nuclear weapons as the supreme strategic self-discipline for their security.Synder (2000 p. 174) has given the two variables for explaining the dynamics of nuclear proliferations. The operative growth of nuclear arsenals among the super motives can be determine as vertical proliferation. Further more(prenominal), crucial potential for the disperse can be recognised in other technologically capable states to develop nuclear technology and this is recognised as horizontal proliferation. Increase in producing nuclear technology and actions of examen endure developed publics eye catching concern, which is in relations to twain military and environmental crisis.In generating nuclear top executive into the state it builds the sense of both security for the state conversely insecurity for human and the environment. Acknowledging the power of state after possessing nuclear w eapons will expressedly achieve security against external threat, nevertheless it is crucial to consider the aspect of economic act on the state. In obtaining nuclearization, the state must ready the capability in economic and technological terms. underdeveloped researches and building nuclear arsenal argon phenomenally expensive even to sustain, whether the state is able to experience to build nuclear weapon programs, if the state is incapable to maintain their program effectively it would lead to the chances of take the program, thus may cause major threat to its own state. Moreover, nuclear arsenals under the programs can lead into the hands of the rouge state (2000 p. 159). External threat of bribery from other rouge states can get after the financial struggle of opening of the bureaucracy.In the past states have failed to sustain the nuclear system as it is outstandingly costly, Soviet Union is one the recitation that diminished nuclear program cod to lack of finical ho ld up. In this case, the state should pursue for other survival resources to provide security for their people, for instance environmental sustainability and enhanced agriculture. Neo classical realist assesses the states power and examines of the consequences of the nuclear proliferation, on why the state pursue changes in its power in relations to their declining power carriage in the global system.Leaders and decision makers of their states argon afraid of the strategic costs in their own actions in trying to achieve win and superior security. The NMD not only profoundly stresses the status quo (2000 p. 171), but it to a fault threatens to create an incongruous actions to other states to produce or prepare a similar level of power of security to counter the external threat. Thus it generates a certain situation as known as acute security dilemma or a cascade of nuclear proliferation, an increase in one states security decreases the security of others (Jervis, 1993 p. 8).The sta tes facing security dilemma are determined by the given factors of their geographic size and location, power of their equipped military and strategy. These factors are expected to manipulate the position of the state in the international system by means of security threats. Security dilemma actively elevates up and down the chances of conflictions between states, hence it shapes balancing strategies. In comprehending the occurrence of nuclear proliferation, it is important to find the theory on why states pursue nuclear power.In the means of security, constructivist have presented an insight on how to analyse the question of How nuclear weapon technology mean different things in different places and quantify (Rogers, lecture), constructivist states that it is challenging to determine with the absence of calculating and the perceiving into giving attention to cultural, social and historical context of the state to how the definition came to assessable. Thus, it is important to deve lop an understanding of the purpose of WMD in the international system, with the question of why states seek to build nuclear power.Numerous realist and non-realist scholars consider the security model as the standard plea for occurrence of nuclear proliferation (Sagan, 1997). According to the security model states will, develop nuclear weapons when they face a significant military threat to their security that cannot be met through alternative means. (1997 p. 54) Established on Waltzs theory of neo-realism, a limited, although persuasive part of the realist theory the security model was derived initially from the original conception of balance of power.He puts forward his thought that states involves in competitive strategies for insure of their security and survival. In the brusque term, it is anticipated that states will weigh against from the changes in relative power that destabilise their position in the global system, externally by unifying with a nuclear armed state or i nternally by developing nuclear technology themselves. Further looking at the long term, states are likely to develop nuclear arsenals through imitating after observing an effective but overly successive strategy attempt by states.Sagan concludes that almost all the judgments to develop nuclear arsenals appear to be best explained by the security model (1997 p. 85). Consequently, the security model addresses a persuasive explanation regarding the theory nuclear proliferation. Three precise models are introduced in explaining the incongruous impact of nuclear proliferation why states seek to build nuclear weaponry, in Sagons article, Why Do States Build Nuclear Weapons? Three Models in Search of a turkey (1997). Security model of nuclear weapons and international threat is the first model Sagon introduces.According to the neorealist, the international system is an anarchy which is driven by the threat of nuclear weapons where states are to equip for preparation for conflict. Abse nce of spot in the system, states can desire to choose to achieve self-help. However in spite of authority, there are strong and weak states that separate which states are capable of obtaining more power through nuclear weapons. The tercet factors are crucial in the makeup of a strong state, they are powerful military, economy and politics.As mentioned earlier, security dilemma is a result of proliferation but also in vis a versa producing a chain of mountains response, Sagon believes that From this perspective, one can envision the history of nuclear proliferation as a strategic chain chemical reaction (1997, p. 58). The previous model could not offer the all in all explanation which the second model could explain whole reason why states pursue to develop nuclear weapons. The second model is, domestic politics model, it focuses on who encourages and discourage the state government to develop WMD.Within the domestic level Sagon explain that there is also a chain reaction and map s out who governs the state to process of developing nuclear arms, Sagon says, the acquisition of nuclear weapons is likely to serve the parochial bureaucratic or governmental interests of at least some case-by-case actors within the state (p. 63). In contrast to the security model, the causality is not unidirectional (Rogers, 2012 lecture) but further complexity follows as it activates at the level within the state.The last, third model that Sagan study is the norm model which addresses states as unitary actors and it concentrates on norms in reference to the possession of nuclear arsenals. It peruses to apprehend the role of nuclear weapons symbolically and argues that states actions are determined by common beliefs about which actions are entrance in the international community (p. 73). As a final point, the last model seeks to envision the upcoming future for the potential of non-proliferation era.The three models by Sagan have explained and provided a perception on the me ntal representation justification of nuclear proliferation on the reason behind states would seek nuclear power for the ultimate power for threatening external states. The studies of the three models demonstrated an aspect on how possession of a nuclear weapon can change the system drastically internally and externally through the distortion of the balance of power. Nonetheless, these models have also given the truth about the consequences that ultimate power can be achieved however nuclear weapons will not necessarily provide or elevate complete state security.In essential fact, this security practice also accompanies insecurity where the contemporary international system in presence of nuclear proliferation it is a challenge not to face security dilemma. The ongoing nuclear proliferation is one of the distress issues in the international system. The movement of the proliferation alters the balance of power between the states creating a possible eruption in the system. An example in the contemporary politics, North Korea has obtained nuclear and missile technology and have directed bomb testing which have intensified the tension between the two Koreas (2009).Moreover, North Koreas uncertain internal political activities may have created falsifiable knowledge, however this clearly demonstrates the security dilemma in the states surrounding as well as the allied superpowers are caused in the consequences of contemporary proliferation. In 1970, the governing of the Non-Proliferation accord (NPT) entered the international system which became the central focus in the non-proliferation organisation. It is a prime structure of managing the spread of nuclear weapons in the international system.It is designed and bounded built from expectations by constitution makers in solving security dilemma. The NPT operates as a normative regime, the treaty seeks to challenge why or why not state choose to build nuclear weapon but also examines state behaviours and perceptio ns in the state in accordance to their nuclear power (2000 p. 175). The NPT is influential and conspicuous in shaping the thought of policy makers and leaders of the state to determine whether the state should develop nuclear technology or not, allied or independent or as for energy provision.Most importantly, it determines and suspects the validity of a nuclear armed state as well as their maintenance. Moreover, it is an arrangement between nuclear armed state which have hold to nuclear materials and technology transmission to a non-nuclear armed state for peaceful determination, then this state defend themselves to utilise nuclear materials and technology only for peaceful purposes and not dissuade its primary purpose to develop nuclear weapons (Bosch, 2007 p. 16).According to the NPT, the current situation in North Korea and Iran are in the case of being outside of the normative framework. Only those state who act inside the normative framework are reflected as a proper state, states that are outside the framework are considered as an improper state and these states are recognised as rouge states (2000 p. 159) From this, it is clear to vision the influential power of NPT in the international system in shaping states actions. Various debates have risen in regards to its unbalanced regime by the NPT.In respect to the military rules NPT have regulated a biased and unequal military regime labelled as imperial like imbalance (Kissling 2008, p. 30). It is states that NPT lacks in some aspects of definite responsibility and keeping the timeframe to discharge nuclear weapons. Though NPT is considered influential, its role in accomplishing complete disarmament, negotiations in the international system has not been an effective control. ecesiss and treaties such as Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation or the Fissile Material Cut off Treaty hardly enacted policies.Primary time of the NPT regime, galore(postnominal) states imposed the NPTs disarmamen t commitment on nuclear technology through the prevention of aircraft and send out transports holding nuclear materials from entering the state boundaries. However, prohibition of nuclear armaments was infrequently imposed. Thus, lack of strict obligations, have made perpetual actions of nuclear proliferation within the states, including rouge state, which is still persists so far in the contemporary politics. 2008, p. 31)Furthermore the NPT authorized nuclear armed states to conduct peaceful nuclear explosions and in military purposes to audition nuclear weapons, all below level zero. Comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty was in conclusion enacted in 1996 and prohibited these actions of testing or detonating any nuclear weapons. Most importantly, states from NTP that possesses nuclear armaments and non-nuclear armed states have not yet ratified or signed for the NPT.Hence, NPT still lack in the requirements to enter the international force. Consequences of these unresolved of co mplete disarmament by the NPT or any other non-proliferation regime, the threat of nuclear weapons will continue to rise and sense of fear and insecurity will continually follow The study of the structure, development, and history of the non-proliferation regime, analysing some of conflicting attitude to the issue has led to recognise that this contemporary politics are in a period trapped by the growing dangers.Give the impression that more than ever, the regime of proliferation will continue to arise to be more powerful however understanding of nuclear behaviour has limits as nuclear power also carries both great senses of security and insecurity for the state (Synder, 2000, p. 189). Nuclear weapon alone carries great amount of complexity. There it challenges external states, policy makers and leaders in determining nuclear armed states motivation and its behaviour especially rouge states attaining nuclear arsenals.There are two paths in regards these consequences in the future a state can puree towards or away from nuclear weapons. Non-proliferation and disarmament will occur as there are perspectives on states denuclearising due to the fall any of politic, economic, and military factors. Proliferation may continue due to the chain reaction of security dilemma encircling insecurity in the international system.Thus this has developed critical thinking on why states still choose to pursue nuclear technology in the contemporary politics. Security models pointed by Sagan are filters to understand the theology of nuclear proliferation. WMD has challenged the thought on international security in the contemporary politics as the studies still havent settled with a definite answer of when the complete non-proliferation era will arrive, before then the sense of insecurity through security dilemma will encircle the international system.