Saturday, August 31, 2019
|HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE | |KNOWLEDGE SPECIFICATION | |Particular Activity Planned to Assess relevant Units (s) : | |Candidate: |Assessor: | |AIVET PHIRI | | |Date of Activity: |Location: | |Units/ |Details |KS | |Element/Pcs | | | | 41-1 |Any information you know that will improve the communication needs of a service user must be recorded | | | |in the communication book and care plan in a shareable and easy to read form, also it is important to | | | |access information on the language preference of the service users, permission should be asked before | | | |accessing such information and the information should be kept confidential.. According to the Human | | | |Right Act 1998 gives everybody the freedom of expression. Everyone has the right to respect for his | | | |private and family life, his home and his correspondence.There shall be no interference by a public | | | |authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is | | | |neces sary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic| | | |well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health and | | | |morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. Ã¢â¬ Every individual and key people | | | |has the right to information, freedom of speech, right to life and religion. | | | |Also the Associated essay: Unit 4 M1Discrimination act is an Act to make it unlawful to discriminate against service users on the| | | |language difference . No individual should be discriminated against on any of the following grounds, | | | |race, sex, gender, colour, language, culture, disabilities etc. | | | |Equal opportunity Act gives very individual should be treated equally regardless of their gender, | | | |culture or sex i. e. Nobody should enjoy preferential treatment over the other when it comes to | | | |communication and treatment of language e. g. here a service user has a different language from the | | | |care worker and other service users it is the duty of the manager to employ whom could assist the | | | |staff and the service users to understand them self by interpreting the language, so that the needs of| | | |the service user can be meet. Carer can also learn some words from the service user language as this | | | |also promote good relationship. | | | |The data protect ion act gives individuals the right to see the information recorded about them and | | | |ensures that information should be treated with outmost confidentiality and must not go beyond | | | |authorised boundaries.Therefore records and reports must be treated confidentially, they should be | | | |legibly written, factual, objective, dated, timed, signed, the use of past and present continuous | | | |tense and they should be kept in a safe place for confidentiality. | | | |By having a vivid knowledge about these legislations, as a team leader I am responsible to incorporate| | | |the requirements of these legislations when communicating, recording and reporting with individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ | | | |key people and others. | | |When completing Records and Reports | | | |The Data Protection Act 1998 gives people a right to see the information recorded about them | | | |All information recorded about communication needed of service user or ways in which you found more | | | |helpful should be | | | |- Accurate | | | |- Factual | | | |- Clear | | | |- Easy to read | | | |Any information recorded must also keep confidentially. Do not leave confident material lying around | | | |in public areas. Whatever the purpose of the information, it is important that you record it | | | |accurately. It is also important that you pass one any information correctly in the right form and to | | | |the right person . Although information could be pass by telephone ,Fax, Email, post etc.Whatever | | | |means it is passed, it must be kept confidentially and service user consent must be seek before such | | | |information is shared. | | | |Provide active support for the individual:-Active support is giving service users the opportunity of | | | |expressing their independence in whatever they want to do. In this case, I make them do what they are | | | |capable of doing and what they enjoy doing which is in their best interest. It improves their | | | |intellectual skills and energy and it serve as a developmental procedure as well. | | |- Using Positive Body Language;- We can guess the feelings and thoughts that another person has by | | | |looking at their eyes ,face, posture, body movement, and cheerfulness promote good relationship and | | | |ensure service user are able to express their needs. | | | |Active Listening:- Paying attention to what service user makes them feel as an individual and | | | |entourage them to express their view and needs.This could be done by sitting at reasonable distance | | | |to them and look at them in the eye and touch or stroking their hand to show or send messages of care | | | |and affection. | | | |- Give them sufficient time to say and respond to any issue being discussed. | | | |- Maintaining eyes contact also makes the service user feel that we are listening to them. | | | |- Employ interpreter who can interprets the language of the service user. | |41-2b |- Sign language such as flash cards, picture and communication | | | |Recognise the uniqueness of individual and their circumstances:- | | | | | | | |Every individual has got their own style, way of life culture, race, ethnicity and circumstances, | | | |medical and mental status so this has to be put into consideration. Checking the individual care plan | | | |allows you to know their needs and strength on communication. where a service user has a different | | |language from the care worker and other service users it is the duty of the manager to employ whom | | | |could assist the staff and the service users to understand them self by interpreting the language, so | | | |that the needs of the service user can be meet The Equal treatment act:- the principle of equal | | | |treatment in the area of employment, covering disability, religion or belief, sexual orientation and | | | |age.Knowledge of this makes me ensure that I have to put into consideration the uniqueness and | | | |circumstances of individuals when communicating with them. | | | | | | | |Empower individual to take responsibilities ( as far as they are able within the restrictions placed | | | |upon them) and make and communicate their own decisions about their lives actions and risk.Providing | | | |active support also comes into this context which is the ability of giving individuals the opportunity| | | |of expressing their independence in whatever they are capable to do. An example is a case were the | | | |lunch was to be served and an individual couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t state his demand clearly and I happened to be in | | | |the unit by then. As the team leader I used sign language in order to make them communicate their | | | |demands.An example of empowering them to take responsibility might be by making them to do their | | | |laundry, escort them for shopping or by setting the dinning tables with my supervision | | | | | | | |How to manage ethical dilemmas and conflicts for individuals, those who us services and | | | |staff/colleagues, about communication, r ecording and reporting. | | |As a team leader in order to manage ethical dilemmas in term of communication recording and reporting,| | | |I just have to be professional in everything I say and write about individuals and to encourage other | | |41-2c |to do so. In this case I can avoid going beyond professional boundaries. In case an ethical conflict | | | |arises in such situation then I have to carry out a professional corrective measure in handling it. | | | |E. g. hen there is a misunderstanding between two individuals I need to calm both individuals down and| | | |separate them then listen to their complains then settle it amicably following equal treatment to make| | | |both involved happy | | | | | | | |How to challenge information, document, systems, structure, and procedure and practice that is | | | |discriminatory, especially to individuals communication and information needs. | | | |Basically in order to challenge information that are discriminatory I do the followings: | | | |I take disciplinary actions.Due to what might have happened by following the disciplinary procedure. | | | |Restructuring:- if the structure is discriminatory, a restructuring strategy will go a long way to | | | |combat the situation. | | | |Training:- This will boost the exposure of the team members and will aid their communication skills. | | | |Re orientation:- it is very important to re orientate members of my team if they are use to a certain| | |41-2d |act that is discriminatory and they have no know ledge about it. | | |Meetings:- this can be held in order to combat discriminatory situations. | | | |Review:- This will also go a long way in yielding positive results. | | | |Making use of legal and organisational procedure:- it is very important to seek legal or supreme | | | |advice during discriminatory situations. | | | |Accurate recoding and reporting: Ã¢â¬â documentation is quite important as well. It can be referred to | | | |over and over again. | | | | | | |Coded of practice and conduct, and standard and guidance relevant to your own and the role, | | | |responsibilities, accountability and duties of others when communicating recording and reporting | | | | | | | |The code of practice could be referred to as conditions that set the standard for the practice in the | | |41-4 |care setting. The main aim is to guide the team members and their leaders in the practice of their job| | | |and to make the care setting free from abuse discrimination and a couple of other things.It defines | | | |the roles and responsibilities of team member and their employer and also helps in making decisions. | | | |The code of practice for Employers of social care employers sets down the responsibilities of | | | |employers in the regulation of social care workers. | | | |Below are the roles of team leaders under the code of practice that reflects to communication. | | | |You must have given policies and procedures in place to enable social care workers to meet the CQCÃ¢â¬â¢s | | | |code of practice for social care workers. | | |You must put into place and implement written policies and procedures to deal with dangerous, | | | |discriminatory or exploitative behaviour and practice. | | | |Strive to establish trust and confidence of service users and carers. | | | |Make sure that you maintain eye contact with the service user when you are talking and avoid staring, | | | |sit where you can be comfortably seen. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t sit where someone has to turn in order to look at you. | | |-show by your gesture that you are listening and interested in what people are saying | | |41-5 |- nodding your head will indicate that you are interested and receptive but be careful not to overdo | | | |it and look like a nodding dog | | | |- you can show your caring and concern by using touching to communicate your caring and concern | | | |- be aware of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body language which should tell if he or she finds touch acceptable. | | | | | | | |Recording and reporting | | | |Sometimes there may be the need to pass on information to other colleagues or other health care | | | |professional who contribute to the well-being of service users. Some of the things may need to | | |recorded are | | | |Signs and symptoms indicating a change in the condition of an individual | | | |Signs of a change in the care needs of an individual | | | |Difficulties or conflicts that have risen and actions taking to resolve them | | | |Actions you have taken or notice to promote the communication need of such service user | | | |All information recorded should be | | | |- Clear | | | |- should be factual | | | |- It should be legible | | | | | | | |Current local, UK and European legislation and organisational requirements, procedures and | | | |practice for: | | | |Protecting individuals from harm and abuse: Ã¢â¬â Pova, Health and safety, CRB, employees health check, | | | |knowledge from training. I have to make sure that all team me mbers go through the CRB check, medical | | |41-6 |status check taking vaccinations against hepatitisÃ¢â¬â¢ B or C, vesicular, and MMR before they are being | | | |employed.It is also essential that I ensure the health and safety of the working environment as well | | | |in order to make it free from abuse and accidents. | | | | | | | |Making and dealing with complaints and whistle blowing:-Complaints procedures, This has to do with | | | |the organisational procedure we do have the introduction and application of complaints forms and the| | | |same time whistle blowing procedures as well.For example if an issue arises and I happened to | | | |notify my superior, if she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take any action it is important for me to report to the regional | | | |manager and if the regional manager doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take any action as well, I am saddled to report to a | | | |governing body which might be CQC with or without disclosing my identity. | | | | | | | |Promoting your organisationÃ ¢â¬â¢s service and facilities- Quality assurance should be put in place to | | | |promote the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s service and facilities e. g. were there is a leakage is the duty of the | | | |manager to call the plumber to fix it as this has to do with health and safety procedures and | | | |maintenance.Health and Safety at Work act 1974- The following are the direct quotes from this | | | |legislation Ã¢â¬Å"It shall be the duty of every employer to ensure as far as reasonable practicable, the | | | |health and safety and welfare of all his employeesÃ¢â¬ | | | |Ã¢â¬Å"it shall be the duty of every employee to take reasonable care of the health and safety of himself | | | |and other people who may be affected by his act or omission at work. | | |It is also mandatory for every employer to ensure that all equipments are checked and serviced from | | | |time to time. | | | | | | | |Managing and processing request for health and care services, and the parameters for accepting o r | | | |rejecting requests for your organisation. | | | |This has to do with the organisational policy and procedure which relates to other organisations | | | |request in order to provide services.Like inter- care and other organisations that are sending | | | |request in order to supply a couple of products and explaining to them the health and care services | | | |that your organisation provide and you can tell them where to go in order to get such services | | | | | | | |Workplace policies and procedures could be accessed in the following ways: | | | |From computers, file | | | |For example if the information of a client is stored in a computer or another data operating system | | | |and it is pass worded. For me to get access to such information I need to request for the password | | | |from my superior, the regional manager or the head office. | | | | | | |How to access and record information, decisions and judgement about and individualÃ¢â¬â¢s communication and| | | |lang uage needs and preference electronically and manually. | | | |Information about an individual could be access manually from the care plans, from the individual, | | | |social service, friends, family of the individual and the GP. It could also be accessed electronically| | | |via telephone, internet, email and fax. Always request for the are plan of an individual before | | | |dealing with them and ask if you are not sure about any of the information, and up date data | | | |electronically by pass wording and keeping the filed in their appropriate place to observe the data | | | |protection | | | | | | | |How different philosophies, principle priorities and code of practice can affect inter agency and | | | |partnership working when communicating, recording and reporting. | | | |In this case the other agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s method of communication to my organisation might not relate to my | | | |organisations policy and procedure e. g. he social worker wants to speak to the key worker ab out an | | |41-7c |individual, but our own policy might not warrant him to use such procedure because the social worker | | | |might be asking sensitive question that needs professional response. | | | |Difficulty in inter agency relationship can result into misunderstanding, communication barrier, | | | |incorrect information, miss interpretation, loss of information as well. | | | | | | | |An up to date knowledge of literature related to best practice in recording, reporting and developing | | | |and evaluating communication systems and methods. | | |-Attending training and professional development | | | |-Through research | | | |-Being showed by your supervisor and manager as they may have more years of experience and accumulated| | |41-7d |knowledge which they are happy to share with you. | | | |-Through the Internet: following up information on the internet to improve your knowledge. Be wary | | | |about the information you get from the internet make sure that they are from a reputable source such | | | |as a government department, a reputable university or colleges. | | |-working and discussing as a group or team | | | |In order to reflect best practice, it must be signed, dated, timed, factual, readable, and objective. | | | |In this case it has to possesÃ¢â¬â¢ professional quality and must be readable as well. | | | | | | | |An up to date knowledge of governments reports, inquires and research relevant to recording, | | |41-7g |reporting and personal, organisational, multi-disciplinary and multi- organisational communications. | | |Updating knowledge and skills by going for more training, making more research, journals, and internet| | | |liaising with governing bodies from time to time, maintenance of constant and very good relationship | | | |with other organisations from time to time. By doing all this, as a team leader I will definitely be | | | |able to update my knowledge and skills in terms of recording, reporting and personal, organisationa l, | | | |multi-disciplinary and multi organisational communication. | | | | | | | | | | |Theories about: | | | |Human growth and development and how it can affect communication abilities | | | |Age is one of the factors that render the immune system weak; this will have adverse effect on service| | | |users. In a situation when the service user gets very old he might not be able to hear clearly, this | | | |will prompt anybody that is speaking to them make some adjustment by raising the tone of their voice | | | |while speaking to them. | | | |It brings blur speech, memory loss, the hormones gets weak, and medical status changes. | |41-7h |Team work motivate the ability to perform a task and further more multidisciplinary team can share | | | |ideas, help each others improves language and your skills and ability to communicate with client | | | |effectively when handing over a shift. | | | | | | | |Communication abilities and skills and their impact on an individual. | | |A serv ice user who comes from a foreign background and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have English as his foreign language | | | |might lose his self esteem when he sees how other service users are relating to each other. | | | |The impact is that their needs might not be fully met; it might lead to frustration, abuse or bad | | | |practice. | | |41-9 | | | | | | | |Identity, self esteem and self image:- A language difference makes it difficult to reach their | | | |self-esteem or self-image for example if the client does not speak or right effectively it brings | | | |about withdrawal of one skill and ability to work as am group. | | | |This is the way that someone pictures him or herself. Loss of it might lead to isolation of one self | | | |and not being able to communicate his/her demands. | |41-10 | | | | |power relationship and how it can be used and abused when communicating with vulnerable people | | | |For instance, a carer might take a service user for granted due to the service userÃ¢â¬â¢s nature of | | | |health. In a case where the service user do forget easily, the carer can decide to give some | | | |informationÃ¢â¬â¢s which are not professional in the presence of his service user because he knows that he| | | |will forget. | | | |Power can be used positively in terms of communication by encouraging the service user and it can be | | | |used the other way round by swearing and shouting on the service user. | | | | | | |multi-disciplinary and multi-organisational working and communication | | | |I a situation where an abuse have occurred , the staff that was involved face a disciplinary panel and| | | |POVA and other governing bodies within and outside the organisation could be involved. | | |41-11 | | | | |Evidence based research and knowledge based research and benefit of both when recording and | | | |reporting. | | |Making use of legislations and quotations while reporting . It makes them serve as future reference | | | |and legal document. This authentifies the report and makes it meet professional standard. | | | | | | | |Knowledge of physical and mental condition you are most likely to deal with and make judgement on when| | | |managing and processing request for services.From my own point of view there are some physical and | | | |mental conditions of my service user that I can easily decode the cause and know the next line of | | | |action. For example of my service user that his mental status deteriorates drastically I noticed that| | | |might be as a result of his age, I informed my manager, so I had to call the social worker and GP to | | | |come and access him, so his medications was reviewed. At the conclusion of the review. I contact the | | |41-14 |pharmacist to supply. | | | | | | |Health, social emotional, financial, and environmental factors that affects the communication skill | | | |and abilities and well bearing of individuals, families, groups and communities. This could be as a | | | |result of an unsafe working e nvironment this will definitely result into a couple of things within the| | | |working environment because there is no level of security for service users, visitors, staffs, and | | | |those outside the organisation as well. Health factor could be poor facilities for hygiene and other | | | |poor facilities as well which are not helping the people within and outside the organisation. | | | | | | |How different philosophies, principles, priorities and codes of practice can affect inter agency and | | | |partnership communication and working. This can affect inter agency relationships positively or | | | |negatively. Basically inter agency relationships in the context of communication can be of different | | | |medium. The computer can be used for data processing and updating or uploading.Phones can be used | | | |for calls, reporting, enquiry, receiving. The fax machine as well can be used for reporting, | | | |receiving. Internet could be used for research, emails, while the beeper could be used for sending | | | |signals. Different organisations can have policies; principles guiding the use of this medium in | | | |dissemination of information are which might either be to the advantage or disadvantage of the other | | |41-15 |agency that is relating to them. | | | | | | |Physical and mental conditions you are likely to deal with within your work with individualÃ¢â¬â¢s | | | |families, carers, groups and communities and their effect on the communication needs of individuals. | | | |Physical-Ageing, sickness, disabilities, memory lose, hearing impairments, lose of sight. Mental- | | | |dementia, depression, stress, dyspraxia, alzelmhers, and the effects can be inappropriate eactions, | | | |stress, anxiety, and frustration. Lastly their needs might not be met perfectly by their community due| | | |to their inability to communicate their requests. | | | | | | | |Specific equipments that will enable individuals with speaking, sight or hearing difficulties and | | | |additional needs or learning difficulties to receive and respond to information and how to access | | | |and use this. | | | |The specific aids used in the care setting to enable individuals with speaking, sight or hearing | | |41-17a |difficulties and additional needs or learning difficulties to meet their communication needs and | | | |preferences are hearing-aids, spectacles (glasses), communicative pictures, makaton, flash cards, | | | |computer audio communication systems, interpreter etc.Not the provision of this alone to individuals | | | |who need them but to encourage them in making use of it as well. | | | | | | | |The types of records and report that you are required to complete within your work role and how to | | | |complete them | | | |Below are the records and reports that I do complete within my work role. | | |The finance register, supervision form, annual appraisal, Criminal Record be rue check, Risk | | | |assessment, Care worker assessment, Reviews, Ca re plans, Minutes of meetings, Daily Logs, Handover,| | | |maintenance records . | | | |In order to state how to complete them, they should be dated, completed, clear enough, comprehensive, | | | |timed, location, witness, subject, and should be objective as well. | | | | | | | | | |41-17b |The different types of data that can be used within records and record and which are best for records | | | |and reports you need to access, complete use and develop-Basically data means informationÃ¢â¬â¢s. The | | | |different kind of informationÃ¢â¬â¢s needed in the care setting is of the following categories. | | |Financial: this could be the financial informationÃ¢â¬â¢s about the home, individual, staffs and financial | | | |relationships with other organisations as well. | | | |Medical: this has to do with the medical informationÃ¢â¬â¢s about an individual. | | | |Social: anyway in relation to the social status of an individual e. g. Members of his family, his wife| | |41-17c |and children. | | | |Research based: this as to do with informationÃ¢â¬â¢s received based on the research I have made. | | |Statistical: statistical in the sense of the data base that I do update from time to time. | | | | | | | |Methods of working which facilitates the resolution of the conflicts that you are likely to face | | | |when communicating with individuals and key people. Be attentive, supportive, encourage, and provide | | | |adequate information.When it comes to resolution of conflicts in relation to communication, I have | | | |got to clarify all misunderstanding in a polite and informed manner in order not to cause another | | | |create bad feelings and if I canÃ¢â¬â¢t solve the conflict I refer to my manager to get advice or intervene| | |41-17d |to solve the issue at hand | | | | | | | |31.How and where information communication technologies can and should be used for communicating, | | | |recording and reporting | | | |Communication technologies can be used in dif ferent ways to pass information about the service user | | | |and the staff needs during the time of reviewing and updating information about service user this | | | |techno0logy can be use to pass on information to the appropriate people that need to know this | | | |information or needs to be involved in the reviewing of the information. | | | |Some equipment and how they are being used within the setting are stated below:- | | | |Computer:- store data, updating, recording | | | |Phones: Ã¢â¬â calls, enquiry, reporting. | | |41-17e |Fax: Ã¢â¬â reporting, receiving. | | |Internet: Ã¢â¬â Emails, reporting and receiving. | | | |Beeper: Ã¢â¬â For sending signals. | | | |Pagers:- reporting and receiving, | | | |Projector, Reporting, presentation, training. | | | |All the above equipment could be found within the care setting. The computer, phones. Fax, internet | | |41-17f |can be found in the office while the projector could be found in the training room. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |41-18 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |41-19 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |41-20 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |41-21 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |41-23 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |41-26 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |41-27 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |41-29 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |41-31 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
Friday, August 30, 2019
Ã¢â¬ËCreation of suspense is a characteristic feature of narrative in the gothic tradition. Discuss the uses and effectiveness of this device in The Woman in Black and compare them with those that you have noted in one other gothic text. Susan HillÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËThe Woman in BlackÃ¢â¬â¢ is the ultimate ghost story which relies on the use of suspense, intensity, atmosphere and drama, interwoven in a plot full of intrigue which keeps the reader eager with anticipation. Susan Hill has created a chilling novel which translates into a magnificently eerie and genuinely distressing read. Although everpresent, suspense is cleverly built slowly throughout to create a mounting atmosphere. Furthermore, atmosphere is built through place, strong narrative and dialogue. HillÃ¢â¬â¢s calculated timing of events is also crucial in creating the mood of anxiety. The first hint of atmosphere building up was when Mr Kidd meets Mr Bentley for the job of sorting out Mrs DrablowÃ¢â¬â¢s papers. From the start of the dialogue between Arthur Kidd and Mr Bentley it is obvious that the latter is intent on seeing how much Mr Kidd knows about Eel Marsh House. There are many short questions, avoiding the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Then Mr. Kidd asks Ã¢â¬Å"Children?Ã¢â¬ , this demonstrates how Susan Hill spans the question out to draw the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention, and it is clear Mr Bentley most probably knows the answer but is reluctant to tell it. This hints that there might be something wrong or odd here. This withheld information is almost characteristic of the whole foundations of Dracula as character fail to share vital information with eachother which lead to fatal consequences. This technique is very powerful in stirring up emotions as the reader begins to almost urge the characters to share the information which they withold. In the passage from Ã¢â¬ËAcross The CausewayÃ¢â¬â¢, Kipps sees the Woman in Black for the second time however this time, she has a look of pure malevolence and evil on her face. Kipps begins to question whether the hatred is directed at himslef however he is soon afraid and eventually angry. Susan Hill builds up tension and suspense in this extract by controlling the pace, this gives the extract the required tension since events seem to go by slowly and gradually build to their climax. This can be linked back to Dracula as events surrounding Lucy and her dramatic death are steadily explained and her death comes a long time after her first encounter with Dracula. General events in Dracula can also be linked back to Susan HillÃ¢â¬â¢s slow paced build up as Mina tries to put together the pieces of the puzzle throughout while characters often are shown to be naÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ve in there thinking and do not come to obvious conclusions so as to be able to sustain the tension of the novel. Even after Kipps has emotionally broken and he is being comforted by Spider, Kipps can still hear the wailing child across the marshes, This gives the reader an image of unrelenting pain and haunting which only succeeds in adding to the suspense and tension. This can also be clearly seen within Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dracula as DraculaÃ¢â¬â¢s attack on the individuals does not result in a sudden death or transformation but rather begins the cycle which is only completed later in the novel as Lucy is attacked multiple times until she is beyond the point of saving. The Woman in Black by Susan Hill, is indeed a successful ghost story, but what makes it so, is not violence, gore, or even bloodshed; It is the underlying, psychological fear of the unknown, which almost every person possess. From right at the beginning when Arthur Kipps strangely shows his anger in a sudden occurrence which is not made clear as to the reasons why, the reader is asked to try and anticipate consequently creating suspense. Such a theme can be seen Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dracula frequently particularly during the early stages of the novel as Harker visits the count. During these stages it is not made clear the full extent of the countÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives and the reader is only given slight hints through the characters viewpoint so that they are just as helpless as Harker. In Conclusion, Susan Hill has used a number of various techniques to invoke a sense of suspense into her novel. With these techniques she has created an immense atmosphere which is the foundation towards her chilling novel.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Juvenile Gangs in America - Term Paper Example Gangs are found in both urban and rural areas. Adult criminal offenders emanate from gangs at an early age and recruit their members from the gangs. Gangs should be diverted into constructive activities where they can positively utilize their energy and honestly make money instead of using criminal means. Juvenile Gangs in America The case of the young gang member is a sad one as instead of having a fruitful youth they waste themselves in burglary, muggings, robbery, gang wars, drug abuse and drug sale according to Franzese, Covey and Menard (2006). Both males and females engage in gang activities and may find themselves in juvenile jails at an early age owing to criminal activities in which they engage. This paper aims to study Juvenile gangs in America; types of Juvenile gangs, what causes them and the effect they have on society and the crimes they engage in, in the United States. The youth are constantly striving to seek for answers as to who they really are. They are looking to define their character, their objectives and pathways in life. This is probably the reason why gangs are constituted mainly of the youth; people lost looking to find their footing in life and in society. Law enforcers define gangs in a simple way as organized groups that join together for the common objective of committing criminal offences (Barrows and Huff, 2009). Barrows and Huff also state that gangs are strongly glued together, very organized, secretive and violent; a group that is a fast growing great threat to society. They also look to find where they feel safe and secure and a place where they feel dignified. Gangs offer this forum and make the young person feel comfortable and protected. The disadvantage with gangs, even as they offer this homely feel for the youth, is that they offer the wrong advice; a tool of menace instead of positive development. United States has experienced a rebirth of gangs and crimes perpetuated by gangs over the last twenty years (Katz and Webb, 2006). Johnson (2004) submits that there are various types of youth gangs in the streets of United States. Scavengers at times referred to as wanna-be gangs are mainly consisted of whites from the suburbs whose main purpose is to bully and threaten other youngsters. Hispanic gangs, on the other hand, named as territorial gangs gather respect. African American gangs and a few Hispanic gangs called hardcore gangs endeavor to generate money by all means and kick out rival groups through violent. Members of a particular gang share various things such as ambition, devoutness and even backgrounds. The juvenile gang menace is mistaken to be uniquely American but it is a characteristic of many other nations and continents too as state by Siegel and Welsh (2011). The UK is a good example of a state disturbed by juvenile gangs and specifically the capital, London. Though there are many kinds of Juvenile gangs in the US, they tend to share similar characteristics. Such characteristics are; th ey are made up of youths, they protect particular territories mainly in the streets and they are immersed in criminal activities of all sorts. Gangs in the United States exist in all cities and members of gangs tend to evolve into leaders of organized crime settings (Finley, 2007). Young juvenile gang members are often trained by adults and are taught many things among them particular ways of
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Organizational Behavior - Essay Example The Department of Justice of the United States of America clearly stipulates its mission statement, to wit: Ã¢â¬Å"to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law; to ensure public safety against threats foreign and domestic; to provide federal leadership in preventing and controlling crime; to seek just punishment for those guilty of unlawful behavior; and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all AmericansÃ¢â¬ (USDOJ:About DOJ, 2010, par. 1). To enable a prestigious organization like this to achieve its mission and goals, a clear hierarchy of organizational structure was designed to ensure that each and every personnel has specific duties and responsibilities that contribute towards its achievement. Accordingly the field of organizational behavior assists criminal justice agencies in the implementation of strategies to facilitate the accomplishment of organizational objectives. In this regard, the objective of the essay is to proffer an understanding of organizational behavior in a criminal justice agency. The important elements of organizational behavior would be described including how these can challenge the effectiveness of an agency. Schermerhorn, Hunt, & Osborn (2008, 5) define organizational behavior (OB) as Ã¢â¬Å"the study of human behavior in organizations. It is an academic discipline devoted to understanding individual and group behavior, interpersonal processes, and organizational dynamics with the goal of improving the performance of organizations and the people in themÃ¢â¬ . Thereby, the important elements to be considered in an organization, including that of a criminal justice agency, are the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose, mission, and strategy; organizational environment and stakeholders; organizational culture; workforce diversity; and leadership, among others. There were marked differences on the features and characteristics
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Financial analysis - Case Study Example There are various as to why a firm can be profitable and experience cash flow problems at the same time. This case study will discuss the reasons as to why the firm is experiencing cash problems and provide recommendations on how it can improve its cash flow. Cash flow is the ability of a company to meet its financial obligations. A negative cash flow prevents a company from meeting its debt payments like in the case of Cape Chemicals. It is important for Cape Chemicals to analyze the reasons leading to the negative cash flow while still reporting an increase in the profits. By doing this, it will be able to lower its debt ratio to enable it acquire long term borrowing. The analysis will also be aimed at acquiring a positive cash flow and positive profits. Reasons for the negative cash flows at Cape Chemicals The profit for the company has increased significantly over the last three years due to the increase in the revenue obtained from the increase in sales of chemicals. The new pro duct lines have led to increased production and hence increased sales and revenues. However, despite of the increase in profit, the company has negative cash flow due to increase dependence of loans for its capital expenditure. This means that the cash obtained from the profits and other business income is used in capital expenditure. That is, the company uses all of its liquid cash to pay for loans used in capital expenditure leaving it with a negative cash flow. Cape Chemical is a company which deals with the distribution of dry and liquid chemicals. The main reason as to why the company is profitable but broke is because the company has been servicing loans or purchasing capital equipments. Cape Chemicals has intensely used its cash flows to purchase capital equipments in its bid to add new product lines for the company. The need to increase the capacity of the company has seen the company use most of its cash to purchase new equipments a situation which has drained its cash flow s. An additional chemical product line for the company requires a large sum of money which has drained the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s cash supplies. The company has also been serving loans (long term loans) which have been borrowed for the capital requirement reasons. Cape Chemicals used to borrow for its capital requirement until 2006 when the company had reached its bank borrowing limit. The increased borrowing has led to an increase in the debt ratio of the company as shown below Debt ratio 2005 2006 2007 45.45% 58.4% 71.5% The increase in the debt ratio over the three year period is an indication of increase borrowing. The close the ratio is to 100%, the higher is the company depended on borrowings and loans making leading to increase in the total debts and a reduction in the total assets. Capital expenditures are subject to depreciation which reduces the net income and subsequently the profitability of the company. The depreciation expenses associated with the capital expenditure of Cape Ch emical therefore leads to the negative cash flow experienced in the company. Poor collections practice in the company is also responsible for the negative cash flow. For example, according to Stewart, the liberal credit policy in the company had led to increased accounts receivables which then led to the reduction in the
Monday, August 26, 2019
Colony Collapse Disorder - Case Study Example Some of the European countries have observed this phenomenon in alarming numbers whereas some have observed this phenomenon in fewer quantities. Colony collapse disorder is a serious economic concern to the countries particularly to the agricultural countries because bees play a major role in the pollination of pollen grains of the various plants and crops. Bees play a major role in the reproduction of many plants and crops in the forests and due to colony collapse disorder this phenomenon of reproduction has been badly affected. Researchers and scientists are really worried over this rapidly increasing phenomenon of vanishing bees and many researches have been conducted in order to find the real cause behind this phenomenon, but the research teams have not been able to find any major reason for this. Many possibilities have been presented and tested for verification but only a few of the theories related to the cause of CDD have been verified. Though persistent researches many reaso ns have been discovered which are leading to the colony collapse disorder. ... The various reasons that have been found out as the cause of colony collapse disorder are malnutrition, pathogens like Varroa, Nosema, viral and fungal infections combined, pesticides, insecticides, antibiotics, miticides, neonicotinoids, genetically varied crops, variations in migration of the bees, electromagnetic radiations from the cell phones, parasites, pests,, harmful chemicals, destructions of habitats, lack of genetic biodiversity, toxins and poisonous gases in the air, the way the bees are kept, pathogens, extreme climatic conditions, mites, diseases related to honey bees, etc. (Ellis, University of Florida & Florida Cooperative Extension Service, 2007). It is of great concern for the scientists that the insecticides and pesticides used for the protection of the plants and crops from parasites and pests are having a very bad and adverse effect on the environment and the useful insects and living organisms. It has been observed that although these insecticides and pesticides do not kill the organism rather these chemicals impair the abilities and senses of the organisms and eventually the organism will behave absurdly and this will affect the entire eco system. One such pesticide is the neonicotinoids, which belongs to the class of neuro-active insecticides. These insecticides contain the chemical imidacloprid and other such chemicals. These chemical affect the nervous system of the insects, it is found out that these chemicals affect the brain and neurons of the honey bee and disables the sense of directions in the honey bee as a result of which they are unable to reach back to their homes. A research was carried out by scientists in which around twenty hives were considered and each hive was given high fructose corn syrup in different quantities in order to
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Gut microbiota in mammals - Term Paper Example The anatomy of the gut is designed to perform efficiently both of these functions. To enable nutrient uptake, many associated digestive glands and multiple folding of the inner lining ensure thorough digestion and rapid assimilation of the nutrients. The gut associated lymphoid tissue on the other hand ensures that the internal environment of gut remains devoid of harmful foreign antigens. Besides these an important component of the gut is the gut microbiota, which together with the host form a composite body. So intimately is the existence of the two entwined, that the microbial community is collectively considered an organ of the host body; and the mammalian genome is referred to as metagenome, i.e. host genome along with the genome of its microbial community (Ley et al., 1647). The number and diversity of microbes residing indigenously in the gut environment is massive comprising of bacteria, protozoans, anaerobic phycomycetes and bacteriophages. Not only are they an integral part of the gut ecosystem, but they also contribute indispensably to the nutritional, physiological and immunological functions of the gut (Mackie, 13). Though the exact composition of the gut microbiota of different animals cannot be listed with certainty, yet the variations observed are primarily due to the differences in the diet of different animals. ... this, a study of gut microbiology would proceed in three parallel lines, for three classes of microbial consortia; one for each of these gut environments. This paper aims to discuss the functional significance of the microbial population in the gut of herbivores, omnivores and carnivores. Figure 1 Mammalian Gut Figure 2: Mammalian Gut Lining II. Role of Gut Microbiota in Herbivores: Herbivores derive their nutrition from plant components; hence it is imperative to possess the ability to digest plant cell wall. However, the cellulose component of plant cell wall makes it difficult to disintegrate. Herbivores therefore, during the course of evolution have acquired adaptations that enable them to disintegrate and assimilate this otherwise indigestible material (Karasov and Carey, 364). The herbivore mammalian foregut or hindgut is divided into chambers where fermentation of the food intake is carried out with help of microbial inhabitants of the gut. These chambers are known as rumen an d the animals as ruminants. Due to exclusively plant based diet of herbivore, the role of gut microbe in herbivore gut assumes immense significance, the gut microbiota being imperative for digestion process in herbivores. This justifies an exclusive discussion of ruminant gut microbiota. Evolution of gut microbiota: Evolution of the digestive system of mammals to enable utilization of complex plant material proceeds parallel with the evolution of their gut microbiota. The ubiquitous microbes on one hand were easily able to colonize the mammals in general, but further evolutionary pattern was dependent on the diet of the host they inhabited. Thus the microbial population of the mammalian host coevolved with the evolving host digestive system. In herbivores as the gut became longer and
Saturday, August 24, 2019
The Piano Lesson by August Wilson - Research Paper Example The point of the disagreement is the piano. Boy Willie has travelled to Pittsburgh to get his portion of the piano, which is presently in the ownership of Berniece, his sister.Ã Boy Willie is a ruffian, and thinks that the profit from the piano gives him his finest opportunity to surpass the social and economic persecution that has troubled the men in his family (Boan 73). Yet, his vision of a better life is prevented by the refusal of Berniece to put on sale what is, she believes, a very important symbol the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s history. All over the play, therefore, the piano becomes a criterion through which conflicting perceptions of the past could be assessed. The outcome is that Wilson has re-interpreted the difficulties of bearing the weight of history, which is at the core of his other stories, into an issue of how to use history in the most effective way. As Wilson said (Krasner 327): Ã¢â¬Å"The real issue is the piano, the legacy. How are you going to use it?Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Wilson dreamed of writing a ten-play series that would highlight the history of African Americans in his country. He tool on the responsibility of an ancestral Ã¢â¬ËgriotÃ¢â¬â¢ whose obligation was to protect and perpetuate his cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s history and heritage: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ the role of the griot is significant since it is with him we mark the beginning of African literary tradition as we know itÃ¢â¬ (Miller 97). So as to accomplish this he engaged in his ten-play series which would introduce the experience of the African Americans to his fellow citizens and to the rest of the world.
Friday, August 23, 2019
How can the strategic human resource business partner(SHRBP) add value to the IT department - Essay Example Current paper aims to present the way in which the Strategic Human Resource Business Partner (SHRBP) can add value to the IT department and under which terms such task would be performed. Appropriate theories and models are used for justifying the role of SHRBP in the increase of value of IT department. The role of strategic human resource business partner (SHRBP) in the increase of value of IT department Strategic HR management can intervene in organizational activities at all levels of organizational hierarchy Ã¢â¬â reference is made to the organization as a unit, not just to the HR functions and sub-functions (Deb 2006). Of course, the role of HR within the organizations needs to be respected (Raj, 2007). In accordance with Morton (1999) when acting as a business partner, HR is expected to perform a series of roles: Ã¢â¬Ëstrategic partner, change agent, administrative expert and employee championÃ¢â¬â¢ (Morton 1999, in Armstrong, 2000, p.141). Moreover, Robinson et al. (2005) noted that HR can respond to the needs of its traditional role (deciding on the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ positions and tasks) as also to the needs of its strategic role (meaning the development of initiatives for the increase of organizational profits through the improvement of employee performance). As for the strategic HR management, this can intervene drastically in all organizational strategies identifying organizational failures and suggesting appropriate measures; in case that SHR manager acts as a business partner, then his ability to intervene in organizational strategies Ã¢â¬â at all organizational levels Ã¢â¬â is significantly increased. The involvement of SHRBP in the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s IT department would have a series of effects in the departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s structure, activities and performance. More specifically, the role of SHRBP in IT department would refer to the following activities: a) development and improvement of relationships of employees in order to improve communication and cooperation across the department; in this way, the performance of employees of the specific department would be also increased, b) improvement of information sharing; IT department is strongly depended on the management of informati
Why states act through formal International Organizations - Essay Example The paper tells that in the earlier centuries, humans spread out to new geographical territories for various purposes. These territories with the passage of time evolved into civilizations, kingdoms and eventually into states or countries. However, this Ã¢â¬ËevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢ part was not a smooth affair, as certain territories wanting to annex more territories and also to dominate others, indulged in wars and other aggressive actions. These aggressive actions led to major wars including two World Wars. On the positive side, from the last few centuries, especially from the second half of the 20th century, states have become more Ã¢â¬ËcivilizedÃ¢â¬â¢ and are acting in a more controlled manner. This happened and is happening due to various factors and one of the key factors is the formation of formal International Organizations (IO) by the states themselves. States wanted to develop omnipresent overseeing organization or organizations, which can handle a stateÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëint eractionÃ¢â¬â¢ with other countries in sensitive issues, pre-empt any detrimental actions carried out by one state against others, warn and act against states and their governments, when they act against their own people and also to manage social welfare issues like health, education, refugee issues, science, etc. This formation of IOs have actualized a positive environment throughout the world, with the countries acting with self-discipline, minimizing aggressive overtures, and at the same time indulging in welfare activities. However, this is not the scenario all the time, because certain countries without following the tenets of the IOs continue to act aggressively and unilaterally. Even amidst these dishonouring of the IOs, countries tend to obey and act through IOs for certain valid reasons. Historical Background The earliest precursor or the historical prototype of the present day International Organizations is the Delian League. According to Zweifel (2006, pg.31) Delian Lea gue was started around 4th century AD as an association among the Greek city-states, dominated by Athens, with the main Ã¢â¬Å"purpose of facilitating military cooperation against their common enemiesÃ¢â¬ . Although, other regional groupings were formed by the territories to oversee and manage the relations among themselves throughout the last few centuries, nothing materialized on a large geographical scale. One of the main reasons why that did not actualize is because of the absence of sovereign states all over the world particularly in Europe. The evolution of territories and kingdoms into states or modern-day nations did not start till 17th century, with the complete evolution taking place mainly in the second half of the 20th century. According to Archer (2007, pg.4) the key turning points for the formation of IOs were the Peace of Westphalia, 1648, which ended the Thirty Years War and the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Before that, the concept of European unification based on Ch ristianity dominated the political circles of various European territories. However, when that did happen, it facilitated the formation of sovereign state system in Europe, and later throughout the world. Thus evolved states also understood the need to actualize a natural law or entity that can guide and manage the relations between them, and in that direction created bilateral, trilateral and even quadrilateral agreements. However, those agreements among states and did not enlarge maximally. However in the next few centuries, nothing concrete evolved due to various historical reasons including conflicts among the various states, imperialism, etc, etc. Although, international cooperation in terms of collective action happened with the Concert of Europe (1815-1914), Geneva Convention in 1864 and even Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) in 1889, it was not until after the First World War, that the work for the development of International organizations got started. Because of the unpreced ented suffering caused by the First World W
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Invisible Man Essay In Ralph EllisonÃ¢â¬â¢s Invisible Man, the character of Trueblood is unique and well developed. Trueblood is a man who impregnates his wife, and at the same period of time commits incest and impregnates his daughter. This characterÃ¢â¬â¢s reasoning for having sexual relations with his daughter is that he was dreaming when this happened; a feat that while fantastical, could also be plausible due to TruebloodÃ¢â¬â¢s nature. Trueblood, while a moral character aside from his transgression, is also oblivious. A good example of this happens on page 48 when Dr.Ã Norton asks You feel no inner turmoil, no need to cast out the offending eye? Ã¢â¬ to which Trueblood replies Im all right, suh. My eyes is all right too. Regardless of his ignorance, Trueblood shows remorse for his actions, and believes that a man dont leave his family, which attests to the morality of the character. Much like the Invisible man, Trueblood found his own morality which did not exactly follow societyÃ¢â¬â¢s guidelines. When explaining his situation, Trueblood brings up the issue regarding awareness of reality, since according to him he has sex with his daughter during a dream state. As he describes it on page 59, the dream seems to be a metaphor for what actually happened: I runs and runs till I should be tired but aint tired but feelin more rested as I runs Only Im still in the tunnel. Then way up ahead I sees a bright light like a jack-o-lantern over a graveyard. It gits brighter and brighter it burst like a great big electric light in my eyes. Trueblood comforts himself by saying You aint guilty; he does not admit his guilt since he does not see fault in what he did since he was not in control of himself. This is his perception of reality. Again, this unawareness of reality is parallel to the Invisible Mans life, who cannot see anything as real until understanding he is invisible. The way Trueblood has been treated by the white community, however, seems to be one of the major issues. Before impregnating his own daughter, he claims his life to have been hard: Every time I think what a hard time we was having I gits the shakes and it was cold and us didnt have much fire I tried to git help but wouldnt nobody help us. After his sinful act, surprisingly enough, it was the white community which came to his aid. Not only are the police ssisting by giving Trueblood protection from the black community, but also assisting by giving him money. To this, Trueblood says I done the worse thing a man could even do in his family and instead of chasin me out of the country, they gimme more help than they ever give any other colored man (67). Again, morality is the theme here Ã¢â¬â the white community is treating Trueblood in a way as if rewarding him, even though his act was actually reprehensible. While this could be seen as the white communityÃ¢â¬â¢s moral obligation to assist someone who was ostracized from their own community, it could also be seen as moral hypocrisy.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
The History Of Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Marketing Essay The product/service is about a universal system that is being installed in any room or house and controls all the electrical and other things in the room. These things include air conditioning system/temperature adjustment, sound system, doors and windows, lights etc. moreover these option can be altered and can be customize till specific things as per your clients requirement. The target market for the product would be mainly hospital, hotels and offices and big organizations. The target market would be sec a1 and a2 people who have high income and are educated as the product is a bit technical and requires knowledge to make it work. Moreover the system could also be installed in any specific room of the house. All that the product requires is initial setup as per customers requirement moreover further modification can be done to change the settings. The result that we expect from the launch of the product is high as such a system is not yet available anywhere in the world. Specific remotes are present that can control one or two such things but no such automated system that controls all the things automatically. As this system is unique and would be considered luxury so more and more hotel owners and big organizations would be interested to avail such a luxury product. And they would be given specific discounts if they install, in large quantities such as entire floor of a hotel or building. Moreover hospitals are another target market that we would be targeting specifically in the rooms of the patients so that they dont have to move that much, they just have to adjust the settings according to what they want and then it would be easier for them to stay. History of Mitsubishi Electric Corporation The history of Mitsubishi Electric is the history of the development of modern Japan. The company was founded in 1921, when Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Co. (now Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.) spun off a factory in Kobe, Japan that made electric motors for ocean-going vessels into a new company called Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. In that year, the new company entered the consumer sector by manufacturing and marketing an electric fan, which became a hit product. Over the next decade the company succeeded in landing major contracts, including one for the development of an electric railway substation. In the 1930s Mitsubishi Electric started manufacturing, installing and maintaining elevators and escalators as well as producing electric power generation equipment. The company continued to grow and branch out at a brisk pace, and by 1960 had emerged as one of the most innovative diversified electrical equipment manufacturers in Japan. In the early 1960s the company also turned its attention to environmentally conscious manufacturing techniques many years before environmental concern became a serious issue. Over the next two decades the company began extending its reach overseas while establishing itself as a pioneer in the development of computers, advanced air conditioning systems, automobile electronics, satellites powered by photovoltaic technology, and nuclear power generation. From 1980 to the present day, the pace at which Mitsubishi Electric has introduced and refined breakthrough technologies and products for the benefit of society, industry and individuals has been nothing less than astonishing. These technologies include the worlds first large-scale LED screen for sports arenas, the worlds largest CRT television screen for the consumer market, the worlds first spiral escalator, the worlds fastest elevators, the antenna technology behind the worlds first commercial in-flight Internet service, and much more. Today Mitsubishi Electric is a global giant, with operations in 35 countries, more than 100,000 employees, and consolidated net sales of more than US$32 billion. The Product/Business Idea The mission of the company is to design a specific luxurious product that would facilitate the prospective customers. So that they dont have to keep several remotes and keep on changing the settings of each and every thing in the room, the purpose is to facilitate them ,the advantage company has by the launch of the product is its uniqueness and large target market. The company aims to achieve large revenue from the launch of the product moreover ensuring after sales service and to make loyal customers of the product. Smart objectives The company aims to launch the product in such a way that it fulfills maximum requirements of the customers and can be easy to handle, as the product is of different kind the company has decided to make a test product and testing it for sometime so to avoid complications in the product. The current objective is to install it to some specific locations by making agreements, so that it could help to serve its customers in most beneficial way. Then after sometime launch the product to broader commercial level. Estimated sales During our testing phase we plan to install our product initially in hospital, hotels, houses offices and school according to their specification. After their approval we would install the whole product with all functions activated they want. It is a complete product according to the consumer want. We have estimated a steady growth in our sale because our product is new to the market and overall economy of the world is in recession. We have estimated about 3 pieces a day and steady increase in the number of products sold after the awareness and huge spending on the promotional activities. The economic condition in Pakistan and the product is new although it is launched by the renowned company with more than 80 year experience globally and brand name of Japan which we all know is master in these kinds of products. Product Positioning Our basic concern with positioning the product favorably in the minds of the consumers relative to the competitors. We are focusing our product Universal controller as superiority with respect of other indirect competitors. Our product is positioned by use and application. Figure shows a position of our project which is realized by investigation in the form of extensive surveys and primary research through focus interviews etc. Our product is positioned with attributes like Luxurious, Expensive and Sony also comes in this segment according to the diagram. Whereas other competitors brand such as Samsung, JVC, Nobel, Pel, Dawlence are positioned in terms of functional and traditional. Sony Haier JVC Panasonic Nobel Universal Controller Expensive Luxury Functional Traditional Pel Market Analysis Our overall market constitutes of SEC A1 and A2. Our segmentation strategy is to target niche market for such an expensive product and our first priority is to satisfy our customers by providing good quality of both goods and services and base our marketing strategies according to that. Mitsubishi Company is diversifying i.e. it is adding up a new product line which is unrelated to existing ones. Therefore Universal controller is targeted to entirely distinct segments. We have diversified as our firm seeks to be unique in its industry and market segmentation along with particular dimensions that customers value. These dimensions might pertain to quality, design, and service, variety of offerings etc. imposition of our marketing strategies under the age group of 25 years and above with higher bracket income who can afford to use the product. Main users of this product comprises of management of Companies/Hospitals, Five star hotels, Big Multinationals and corporations, Homes etc. we p lanned to have a strong and adequate distribution network channel to make it available in Urban areas because majority of high income holders live in these areas. We have also determined strategies based on behavioral influence, their attitudes. One may use the product and offer others to use same product after getting fully satisfied and act as a Reference group. Reference group is one of the important and have a great influence in consumer purchases, eventually persuade others to make a decision to purchase after getting cost-benefit analysis and evaluation of alternatives. Reason for launching this new product with its distinctive qualities are to have an competitive edge with other companies and to create value for money i.e. people should pay exactly the cost that would equate to benefits derive from consuming it. Our new product is address to completely new market and it is combination of some of the existing products which work separately so by actually realizing the preferen ces and new uses of the product, we made this product to meet demand that other fails to deliver. Universal controller is identified as a want of the customers which offer them complete control for whatever they want since it is customized and meet all their requirement related to electronic appliances such as room temperature control, time settings, Camera options with security control, automatic doors and windows, lightening etc. Competitors Analysis We will compete in electrical industry, where market operates with numerous products effecting our new product indirectly. there is no direct competition but there are many indirect competitors that are currently satisfying the needs of our proposed target such as all the operating units include air condition, systems which control lights, sensor for security alarms etc whereas each unit is matched by the frequency of one controller manually but our product is compatible with variety of appliances by matching up appropriate frequency. Our product holds advantage which is far more then the competitive advantage obtains by our competitors. The foremost effect which we might face after launching our product in the market is that other competitors would copy our idea, hence would make efforts to adopt our technology through tests and inspections by the engineers. There is a threat in case of existing new firms servicing same product and making suitable plans to capture our market share a nd profits. Initially well charge higher prices to cover our initial cost of investment as soon as possible before other firms fill up that space. Product Life Cycle Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Phase out Mitsubishis Universal Controller Other problems which might occur that charging a relatively high prices in introduction stage of our product lifecycle only early majorities would prefer to consume for their Life style who are minorities and on the other hand late majorities would wait for its popularity before consuming it when multiple of other substitutes will be available. In introduction phase of the lifecycle, there are usually high production and marketing cost, and since sales are not materialized, profits are low thus it is important to recognize the necessity of altering the marketing mix to meet these changing conditions. Product Adoption Obviously not all the customers immediately purchase the product in the introductory stage of the product lifecycle, initial purchase of Universal Controller would be undertaken by innovator and Early majorities, those who are first to buy the new product and comprises of those people who are venture some and willing to take risk. Product Improvement We have a policy of changing and alter the product within the specified period of time to make people aware on regular bases regarding the product improvement. We planned to improve and alter by changing the feature of the product, its outlay, design, packaging and so forth. The reason for such a change to attract more customers, provide them upgrade models through marketing research development and modifying into new versions. Marketing plan Marketing plan is an essential component for all businesses. All businesses that are successful have followed a plan. Their success did not happen because of luck, it happened because the success was planned. A marketing plan helps establish, coordinate, and direct marketing efforts. It forces the organization to take a good, hard look at the market of your field and what is currently happening to it. Its a time to establish marketing goals and objectives, which can be later used for benchmarking yourself. Marketing plans helps keep the organization on the right track by following the guidelines it sets. It is also critical when trying to borrow money. When an organization plans to allow you to borrow money or invest in your organization, they require to examine your business plan. The marketing plan is a critical part of the business plan. Marketing Plan Elements: Executive Summary: brief explanation of what the organization does its mission statement, the managements infrastructure, and a short summary about the marketing objectives and the proposed plan. Current Marketing Situation: provides information about the current location, the target markets, and competitors in the market. Competitor and Issue Analysis: a more detailed description about the competition. Also includes potential challenges that could arise in the future due to business issue. Marketing Objectives: where the marketing goals and financial objectives are set. Objectives should be challenging, yet attainable for the organization. Marketing Strategy: plan for meeting the marketing objectives. Incorporates the marketing mix. Action Programs: an explanation of the different tasks of the marketing strategy. What will be done? When will it be done by? Who will do it? What will it cost? Budget: A more detailed look at the cost of the proposed marketing activities. Measurements: sets levels to measure if objectives are being met. Sets timeline to meet these measurable objectives. Supportive Documents: references to support the marketing plan. Includes the marketing research report. Controls: monitoring system for the marketing plan. Monthly or quarterly checklists to insure that the plan is operating effectively. Also included contingency plans. Plans of action in the event of a crisis. It is important to regularly update marketing plan. The market changes almost by the hour. The first marketing plan you create probably will not be effective in the future. Macro Environmental Factors Affecting Our Marketing Plans Economic Condition: Economic condition is a significant force that is affecting the marketing activities of just any organization. Economic conditions are reflected in business cycle Prosperity, recession, depression and recovery. High Inflation rate affects, as less people will buy the product so good idea would be to cut cost rather than evaporate. Competition: A companys competitive environment has major influence on its marketing program. Brand Competition (Pel, Waves and Haier) Substitute Product (Automatic air conditioner, Sensor door ) General Competition Marketing Objectives Marketing objectives which derive from the corporate objectives relate to needs of the target markets as well as to specific sales goals. These may be referred to as general need satisfying objectives and specific sales target objectives. Our marketing efforts will focus on communicating that promise to our clientele. While making marketing objectives a lot of care and extensive information is required so that the objectives which are drafted fit the companys strategic plans at all levels. As marketing objectives are set as benchmark and every individual in the firm has to work for attaining the desired results. We have set some wide and important marketing objectives. Mitsubishi is a company that has been known as a consumer friendly firm for the reason that the company has always strived hard to make their customers happy. So that in return they give loyalty and long term commitment to the product as well as the company. Ultimate controller gives understanding customers need great importance and seriously work on it. If your customer is not satisfied one cannot exist in the market for long. Developing new products, as Mitsubishi enjoys goodwill and a good reputation across the world, the ability to produce new products under its banners as customers at large trust the company. Another important aim of the marketing department is to create brand awareness. Even though a company like Mitsubishi and its product do not need any introduction but to capture the crunch which other acquires it is necessary to make people know about the new product which is known as ultimate controller. Increase product awareness among the target audience. Inform target audience about features and benefits of our service and its advantages. Decrease or remove potential customers resistance to buying our product. Need satisfying objectives means shifting managements view of organization from a producer point of view to a satisfier of target market needs. In the case of Mitsubishi who promises and aims to provide top of line products in the market take help of research and test marketing in order to adjust need satisfying overall objectives. Mitsubishi is a highly financed company who believe in quality provision to the consumer rather than quantity make ads which best fit the mind frame of the target market, putting no negative effect on any individual. For the product which we have come up is designed after a intense research on different fronts in order to know what actually consumers demand and what are their preferences. After evaluating the research they come to a conclusion which is best suited to consumers. So that consumer is happy with the product, the company and remains loyal to both. Test marketing is another technique used by the company in order to judge the minds of the consume rs. The main focus of this type of marketing is, consumer are the best judge and evaluators and by getting results before launch will definitely improve many things which might go against company and product if not properly researched. Marketing Overall Strategy Letting the Customers Know us: It is a fact well known that if your marketing is strong and you are able to get public attention the chances of increased profitability are very high. Therefore marketing wing of ultimate controller department is highly financed and this department strives hard so that it puts long lasting and positive impact on companys profits. Profit is not the only aim of a company when it enters the market. Acquiring market share is essential for surviving in the market. We need to create good relations with our customers. But good relationships are built on trust. So it is natural that the customers would want to learn as much as they can about our company. In this modern age the vast majority of shoppers do their research on theÃ webÃ before making a purchase. Having a company website is a cost effective way to convey in-depth information about our product. Competitive Based On Value: Most people choose the product that provides the greatest value for their money. In a competitive market, theres price parity among the principal players. But since we are providing a product that is the first of its kind in Pakistan so we need not to cut our prices or rates, but instead we will add additional services that will elevate our offer making it too good to resist. This is called bundling. we may need to test various offers until you find a winning combination. Keep In Touch: We will be communicating with our customer database at least every four to six weeks. Use a combination of sales and marketing tactics to stay in touch, such calls, e-mail and postal mail. We will make a habit of periodically communicate with our customers for any problems they may have faced and their recommendations. We would also ask the customers to forward our product information to friends or family members who would appreciate our product and would help us to increase our customer database. We would emphasize on building strong relationship with our customers and their recommendations would be welcome. Strategies to Maintain and Expand Future Growth: We pursue a variety of growth strategies, including the following: the VI Strategy, which aims to make strong businesses stronger, the AD Strategy, which is designed to reinforce solutions centered on strong businesses; and the Global Strategy. With a wide range of products and businesses that are both competitive and enjoying growth in markets worldwide, the ultimate controller is pressing ahead with these strategies as it strives for further domestic and global success. Marketing Mix Strategies Product: The product/service is about a universal system that is being installed in any room or house and controls all the electrical and other things in the room. These things include air conditioning system/temperature adjustment, sound system, doors and windows, lights etc. moreover these option can be altered and can be limited till specific things as per your clients requirement. The product is under the strong brand name of Mitsubishi electric. Making User Manuals Easy to Understand: The ultimate controller promotes measures to create user manuals that are easy to read and understand, enabling customers to use products safely and comfortably. Our guidebook for producing user manuals forms the basis of these measures, Changes for the Better, our corporate statement, encapsulates all that we stand for and aspire to a brighter future for society, industry and everyday life through innovation. Universal Design that Provides Ease of Use: Universal controller is designed in such a way that they can be used by as many people as possible. Mitsubishi Electric works to make products that are truly easy to use and easy to live with, by assessing products in terms of whether they facilitate worry-free living, are simple and easy to understand, use displays and expressions that are easy to identify, and incorporate ergonomic We are also working consistently to develop and improve universal designs both for the way products are used and for easier installation and maintenance. After sale Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.Principle of Notification, Collecting Information, Repair and Recall of Products: In a case where there is a report that a major problem has occurred in a product that we have sold, we have a system for quickly and accurately considering and deciding on steps and measures to take, including the participation of upper management. For recalls in particular, we will work on an ongoing basis to make sure all the relevant products that were sold are returned and repaired, and we will apply these efforts to a wide array of sales channels. Price: Premium pricing: Premium pricing is the practice of keeping the price of a product or service artificially high in order to encourage favorable perceptions among buyers, based solely on the price. The practice is intended to exploit the tendency for buyers to assume that expensive items enjoy an exceptional reputation or represent exceptional quality and distinction. People think that higher price mean a superior service or product. It does not. New firms that may come into the market may provide the same quality service at lower cost. This would lead the customers to think that lower priced companies have poor customer service and a defective product. We are going to use the following two factors to enhance premium pricing: First, specialized knowledge about the service, and prove it to the customers by telling them about the impact new hardware would have on their live and guide them through the process of installation. Second, we will not hide the high price. But we will also explain the reason why the solution to their problem is too expensive, and why it would actually benefit them more in the long run. We can also gain valuable insight of our target market by testing the price before releasing that price to your whole target market. The price of our product/service would be 50,000/- if installed in a single room. Whereas special offers would be given on installation of bigger units such as one entire office or hotel floor. Moreover negations could be done on these bigger projects, by minimizing the contents of the product. it would also be favorable for the company to install on big projects as the cost of installing is less than a single room. Distribution: We would choose direct distribution channel because our product is totally new to the global market. The product is high-involvement and is not part of the regular purchase pattern. Its complex nature ensures that the customer has to be deeply involved while buying the product. Moreover, he should also evaluate all the possible alternatives. Through the direct distribution channel, we would be in a position to exercise more control over the channel. We could satisfy our customers with timely delivery and be in a position to reduce our distribution costs. Thus, meaning a reduction in the expenditures in the short and the long run. A pull selling strategy is one that requires high spending on advertising and consumer promotion to build up consumer demand for a product. If the strategy is successful, consumers will ask their retailers for the product, the retailers will ask the wholesalers, and the wholesalers will ask the producers. Push marketing is where you develop advertising and promotional strategies geared toward your marketing and distribution channels to entice them in promoting your product. But since we are marketing the product ourselves and there are no whole sellers, intermediaries or agents we cannot utilize push marketing for our product or services. Our marketing involves creating an environment encouraging sales. The promotion campaign is to be powerful enough to pull the prospects towards the product and service. The traditional hard-selling Pakistani approach calls for pushing the products towards the clients. However, in the modern business era, the pull strategy is a better bet for increasing the sales. Pull marketing attracts ideal clients to the product. The purchase decision comes voluntarily or at least there is a product inquiry by the customer which would allow us to use our other tools to capture them. Promotional: We recommend an aggressive promotional campaign for our new product. We are doing this to persuade more and more people to buy our product. In order to promote our product, we would be using both above the line and below the line activities. We would be using the following above the line activities: Advertising through television. Newspaper. Magazines. People: The essential ingredients to any service are the staff and people. It is important to recruit an educated staff and train them appropriately in the delivery of their service is essential in order to obtain to obtain a form of competitive advantage. Consumers make judgments on the product and service based on the employees they interact with. Staff will have the appropriate interpersonal skills and service knowledge to provide the service that consumers are paying for. Process: Refers to the systems used to assist the organization in delivering the service. Regular check up on the customer will allow us to know if anything is wrong automatically we can then fix it. Public relation: PR is a low-cost, high-impact way to build name recognition and early sales. With it we can reach virtually any audience, and PR often provides greater credibility than advertising. Tell a Compelling Story: Major media outlets receive hundreds, even thousands, of press releases daily. The fact that ourÃ businessÃ is opening isnt especially interesting. We will need to go beyond the boring news and tell a story that engages the media and our audience e.g. how will your new company benefit the community? By bringing in new jobs. Choose The Right Media: The press is a fickle creature so it is best to use a media that we know will not write a bad review about us. So our press list doesnt have to be long choosing only the media that reach our best prospects and feature editorial or advertising for the product and service we are marketing. Use Media Relations Tactics: Effective PR takes dedicated attention over time to build relationships with the media. However our initial release is just a knock at the door. For an effective media relations campaign, we will need to maintain good relations with them. Make it easier to cover us: We will have a complete press package ready to send to the media that express interest in our story. This can include anything relevant, from product spec sheets to background on your company. We will begin our PR rollout just prior to launching our company, and maintain a well-targeted media relations campaign that reaches out with enough frequency to get us noticed without angering anyone either from the press or the local community then and only then we may be sure to win positive coverage for our new business. Environmental Management and Environment-Related Business Strategies Under Environmental Vision 2021, a long-range vision for environmental management formulated in October 2007, the Mitsubishi Electric Group strives to realize a sustainable society by making positive contributions to the earth and its people through technology and action. As initiatives to help prevent global warming, we are working to reduce CO2 emissions resulting from product use by 30% compared with fiscal 2001 levels, from production by 520,000 tons, or 30% compared with fiscal 1991 levels, and from power generation. With the overarching objective to promote a recycling-based society, we are also implementing measures consistent with the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) product principle while targeting zero emissions in our manufacturing processes and the elimination of direct landfill waste. As we work to ensure harmony with nature and to foster environmental awareness, we will implement initiatives that develop personnel who think, feel and act for the environment. The Mitsubishi Electric Group is active across a wide spectrum of environment-related fields. In its efforts to help prevent global warming, the Group delivers a host of energy-saving products and services such as solar power generation systems, power devices, high-efficiency automotive equipment, energy-saving countermeasure and support equipment, energy-related building equipment, high-efficiency lighting, heat pump applications and clean energy. Education and Awareness of Human Rights The Mitsubishi Electric Group recognizes that its business operations are interrelated with a wide range of peoples and societies, and our code of conduct maintains respect for human rights. Through measures such as training of our employees on human rights issues and promotion of the employment of people with disabilities, we work earnestly to foster respect for human rights while putting programs into practice. At the same time, we have a determination to apply measures appropriate to the proper handling of contemporary issues such as sexual harassment, power harassment, security of the private information of individuals, genetic therapy, and others emerging from recent c
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Theories of Development in Class 1). We have discussed numerous theories of development in class: modernization, dependency, World Systems, neoliberalism, and post-development. Select three of these theories and compare them with reference to: a) the key features; b) explanations of under- and uneven development; c) types of development practices (i.e. how do you do development?); d) identify major criticisms of these approaches. Use plenty of examples to support your points. Development, as a multifaceted, complex issue, has been subject to several attempts to mold a common practice based on a definitive theory. One of the most historically prolific of these was Modernization theory. Modernization theory, as noted by Chant and McIlwaine (2009), is not exactly a singular theory in itself, and more of a complex range of approaches that follow a similar base pattern. An early iteration of this theory is known as evolutionary theory. Evolutionary theory was developed in 19th century Britain by prominent sociologists, who, after examining Darwins theory of evolution, concluded that a pattern of development for various civilizations could be based in a set path evolution. This set path, based upon European civilizations as the final step in the development process, requires that traditional societies change their orientation away from family, community, and cultural religion in order to develop into a European-styled modern society that is based in rationalism and capitalistic gain(Chant and McIlwaine 2009). This evolution theory culminated into Modernization theory. Essentially, a developed society is defined by its use of modern technology to advance a Western export-focused industrialized economy(Chant and McIlwaine 2009). Walt Rostow, a main proponent of Modernization, expanded upon this idea by providing a series of natural steps that a society must go through in order to become fully developed, delineated as a unilinear model of development(Chant and McIlwaine 2009). In the first stage of this model, a society simply exists in a primitive state, where trade is localized and based off a barter system, and religion drives cultural activity. The society then evolves in the second stage to a state of potential development, where capitalistic entrepreneurship and the formation of the state begins in their early stages(RGS 2017). The society then advances to the third step, noted by Rostow as Take-Off. This take-off stage is characterize d by the society transitioning to a capitalist urban industrial economy, with development of state supported infrastructure and agricultural hinterlands. The society then develops to the fourth stage, characterized by diversified economic sectors and advanced transportation networks, as well as advanced educational institutions (RGS 2017). The fifth and final of Rostows steps is aptly titled age of mass consumption, where the society becomes economically consumer based and a welfare system develops. These steps are the tenets of modernization theory, and were commonly thought of as the most effective path to development in the colonial West pre-1970(Chant and McIlwaine 2009). A society will remain impoverished and underdeveloped due to its failure to industrialize in the fashion of Western nation. For example, one could argue that the African nation of Botswana is finally developing and gaining wealth due to their evolution from a traditional tribal society into a nation-state that is rooted in global industrialism. One could then argue that Africa is characterized by uneven development due to the fact that not all nations have gone through the steps of Modernization (Chant and McIlwaine 2009). However, in the 1970s, during the rise of communism and withdrawal of Western colonization, Dependency theory rose in prominence to counter Modernization. Dependency theory is another attempt to explain the patterns of development in various global nations. Dependency theory is noted by Chant and McIlwaine (2009) as separated in three major schools of thought-Classical, Latin-American Structuralism, and Neo-Marxism. Classical Dependency theory, formulated by Paul Baran (1957), rests on the idea that capitalism explicitly hinders development in the Global South. He argues that the Western world relies on developing nations to remain impoverished and unstable as they are an indispensable hinterland of raw resources and manufacturing that the rich, consumerist economies of the West rely on (Baran 1957). Since the basis of capitalism is to generate profit, Western nations exploit underdeveloped nations in order to generate maximum profit. Hence, Global North continues the cycle of poverty in the Global South in order to cement a pattern of exploitation (Baran 1957). An offshoot of Classical Dependency Theory is Latin-American Structuralism -Dependency. This theory, presented by Chant and McIlwaine (2009), is based on the idea economic structuralism, which is a strain of thought schools that claim that development processes must involve changes in underlying social and economic structures of a country. In the context of Latin America, their structural disadvantage in the global economy, beginning in the 1930s, was due to dependence on Western trade markets for exports and imports of goods, as well as competition with other primary raw resources exporting regions(Chant and McIlwaine 2009). What would happen, historically, is that Latin American countries would raise their prices for raw materials too high for Western trade markets. Hence, those markets would go elsewhere for Latin American raw goods such as coffee, bananas, agriculture, and more (Chant and McIlwaine 2009). This put Latin America in a postion of retaining their status of cheap exporters, unable to develop due to lack of substantial capital and reliance o n expensive foreign imports. Chant and McIlwaine (2009) define this relationship as a core-periphery model. The core is the developed West, functioning as exporters of high quality consumer goods that developing periphery nations import. The periphery nations are underdeveloped exports of raw materials to the core countries (RGS 2017). It is by this model that core countries become incredibly rich, and become the controllers of the trade market with the periphery, which must remain in an exploited state to retain the wealth of the core(Chant and McIlwaine 2009). The relationship between the United States and Latin America exemplifies this. The United States, the wealthy core, exploits the periphery, Latin America, for chap raw materials in order to import expensive consumer goods and financial loans. The International Monetary Fund, IMF, made several loans to Latin American Nations, in exchange for the removal of import tariffs and structural social services(Potter et. al 2012). Thi s has led such nations to rely on the United States for imported goods, and has contributed to the lack of development in Latin America(Potter et. al 2012). The neo-Marxist school of dependency theory attempts to provide a solution to this phenomenon. Chant and McIlwaine (2009) state that Neo-Marxist Dependency theory is based on the concept that Western imperialism that occurred in numerous regions of the global South laid the foundations for economic exploitation in the age of global capitalism. Neo-Marxists conclude that the only way for a developing nation to escape the core/periphery cycle of exploitation was to remove itself from the system of global capitalism by adopting communism as its primary economic system(Chant and McIlwaine 2009). Dependency theory is incredibly different from Modernization in that it uses the West as a cause for underdevelopment instead of a model to emulate. Modernization uses Europe and United States as guides to facilitating similar development, while Development theory takes an approach that is from the perspective of the Global South(RGS 2017). Another major theory in development is Neoliberalism. Based on the economic philosophy of Adam Smith and Milton Freidmann, neoliberal development theory states that free, unregulated trade between nations facilitates development and economic growth (RGS 2107). Neoliberalism also touts that large corporations and businesses can generate more profit without government regulation, thus generating more revenue in all countries they operate in. Eventually, any country can become wealthy and developed via open trade relations with numerous countries(Chant and McIlwaine 2009). The cause of uneven development is rooted in overextended regulatory governments that inhibit the market, breed corruption, and prevent transitions to consumerism. The inhibition of the free market is noted as the root cause of poverty in underdeveloped countries(Chant and McIlwaine 2009). This concept is strikingly different from Dependency theory. Dependency theory alludes that it is free, unregulated trade itself t hat causes exploitation and underdevelopment, while Neoliberalism offers it as a path to prosperity. Neoliberal development theory drives the actions and policy of major institutions such as the IMF and World Bank(Potter et. al 2012). Ideally, a poor country would open its market to multinational corporations and nations, engaging in free trade and eventually retaining capital in order to develop. While all of these development theories offer reasonable explanations for the state of global development, they are not without fault. Modernization theory, for example, is flawed as it is inherently Eurocentric. Modernization also promotes rapid industrialization, which could severely harm the environment(Chant and McIlwaine 2009). Dependency theory also has several criticisms. Dependency theorists often offer solutions to underdevelopment via methods such as trade barriers, communist revolution, and government regulation(Chant and McIlwaine 2009). Trade barriers often make the cost of living for a nations citizens higher, and government regulation can stifle the market. And, after the fall of the USSR and similar states in the 1990s, Marxist revolution in the Third World seems unlikely(Chant and McIlwaine 2009). Neoliberalism cannot offer a problem-free solution either thought. As noted by Chant and McIlwaine (2009), major criticisms of neoliberalism include exploitation by corpora tions, debt repayment, loss of food sovereignty, reliance on imports, and loss of social services due to lack of government spending(Potter et. al 2012). Overall, while these theories are by no means perfect, they offer robust and critical frameworks for understating the future paths of developing nations. 6. Explain the evolution of the current global monetary and financial markets. Discuss the power and limitations of the nation-state to control money across borders. Consider how increased financialization has impacted development in the US and beyond. The modern global economy is more complex than ever, with a massive variety of theories as to how it has evolved to its current state. In order to understand the modern market, one first must understand the role of the state in the global economy. After the Treaty of Westphalia, the concept of sovereignty became fixed in the political psyche of the anarchic world system. The term anarchic world system refers to the fact that the international political system of states, not ruled by a governing body, is inherently anarchic. It is in this anarchy that states define themselves as sovereign entities, and, thusly, exist(Lansing 1907). Sovereignty is a states possession of total authority within a geographic territory. There are two types of sovereignty in political theory-external and internal. External sovereignty concerns the relationship between a sovereign power and other states in the international community (Lansing 1907). States with external sovereignty are recognized by other st ates as being a sovereign entity in the international system. Internal sovereignty, defined by law theorist Robert Lansing, is that which is inherent in a people of any state, or vested by its rulerin its fundamental laws (Lansing 1907, 13). Simply put, internal sovereignty is simply the right of a state to govern itself and control its economy. So, with internal and external sovereignty of states established, an international economic system began to form under the theory of capitalism(Potter et. al 2012). Briefly described, capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned by an individual entity, with economic growth proportionate to the accumulation and reinvestment of profits gained in a free market (Seo 2009). The global economy has functioned in a capitalistic sense since the eighteenth century, and has driven everything from Western imperialism to the economic restructuring of the 1940s. It is within this economic context that Seo (2009) offers a succinct examination of the modern financial market. Seo (2009) states that in the years following World War Two the Western world established an international monetary system based on the Bretton Woods Model, a fully negotiated monetary order intended to govern monetary relations among independent nation-states by basing currency exchange rates on gold(Seo 2009). Institutions were established to enforce and enhance this new economic system, such as the IMF, World Trade Organization, and World Bank. However, in the 1970s, the United States, the primary global power, moved it currency off the Bretton Woods System(Seo 2009). With the rise of globalism and the internet in to 1990s, the current world economy is run on neoliberal free trade based in major financial and multinational corporation hubs such as Wall Street, London, etc (Seo 2009). Another fact of the global economy is the financial power of the state. The modern nation-state receives capital via rece iving loans from other states, as well as making loans in order to influence economies (Seo 2009). This system allows for a state to regain a small amount 0f economic control outside its sovereign border. For the United States, economic growth is driven not just by industrial exports or consumer services. Krippner (2005) makes an interesting argument that the American economy is not only driven by finacialization, but that finacialization has altered the pattern of modern development. Financialization, defined by Krippner (2005), is a pattern of capital accumulation though which profits primarily accumulate via financial channels rather than trade and manufacturing channels. Krippner specifies financial channels as activities relating to the provision (or transfer) of liquid capital in expectation of future interest, dividends, or capital gains(Kirppner 2005). Essentially, modern American economics are driven by profits made off financial activities. Krippner (2005) notes this trend increasing as manufacturing industry left America in the 1980s, depleting profits from exports. However, financialization has major implications for US and international development. Krippner (2005) notes that financialization raises two major issues-who controls the modern corporation, and could globalization aid in eroding the autonomy of the states control over their economy? When focusing on global financialization, Akerman et. al (2015) state that the global economy is controlled by corporate-state oligarchs. Historically, a group in power in a state tended to be in possession of the nations natural resources. This was usually the state government before the industrial revolution. As states industrialized their economies and grew a developed business sector, capitalist elites began to hold economic power on par with the state, as they controlled profits from manufacturing and processing natural resources(Akerman et. al 2015). With the emergence and rise of the multinational corporation, power has shifted again. Akerman et. al (2015) define these corporate/statesman cabals as capitalist oligarchies. These oligarchies are not bound by a state, and, hence, drive economics outside o f the state through globalization. This is will often lead to the financialization of a states economy, as a state must allocate more labor as a country industrializes, this implies more capital per worker in the manufacturing sector and lowers profits (Akerman et. al 2015). Second, foreign export capital increases supply and conversely lowers the relative price of manufacturing goods. This incentivizes the economy to move away from manufacturing and into financialization(Krippner 2005). This has impacted development in a major way. 8. You have just been elected prime minister of a newly independent country former colony. What strategies will you use for development? What dimensions of development will you deem most important and how can you measure changes? What theories will inform your practices? What issues and challenges might you face as a post-colonial area? Is it important to craft inclusive development projects in your country and if so, how would you create more inclusive policies (in terms of identity, geography, rural-urban etc. )? If I was the prime minster of a newly independent former colony, I would implement a variety of diverse, inclusive policies and theories in order to create a best-practice solution for how to facilitate development in this country. As a former colony, my nation would face some very unique challenges. As noted by Potter et. al (2012), countries occupied by imperialist powers were often controlled by foreign governments that not only forced Western cultural values upon their populace, but often exploited the labor and ignorance of these peoples (Chant and McIlwaine 2009). When the imperialist power pulls out of an occupied state, they will often leave the country in the hands of a small native ruling class that continues trade with the former occupying power. Because of cultural suppression, tensions often then simmer over and the colonial country falls into economic and political instability(Chant and McIlwaine 2009). My first goal would be to avoid this common situation. In order to accomplish economic security and structural stability, I would draw on guiding principles from Neoliberal theory and Post-Development theory. Neoliberal theory encourages free market trade and industrialization, which I feel would be needed to establish my country in the global corporate hegemony. Free trade would encourage my nation to break out of locked trade relationship with the former colonial power and create markets with other nations. This would be done by drawing on the neoliberal multiplier effect. Sao (2009) describes this this effect is a cycle that is started by reducing import tariffs and export taxes in order to introduce a wide range of global consumer goods into my economy at a low cost. This leads to consumption, which encourages the economy to grow. The growth the economy would attract multinational corporate investors and businesses, leading to reskilling of the workforce. As the workforce expands, immigration to my nation would rise, creating an even more diver se and larger labor pool. This encourages job creation, and promotes entrepreneurship and innovation in order to remain competitive(Sa0 2009 and RGS 2017). This is a positive feedback loop, which would bolster my economy in the short term. However, I would also incorporate elements of Post-Development theory as well. Potter et. al (2012) address that wealthy capitalists and investors cannot lift the poor out of poverty by virtue of their existence. Post-Development theory moves past Western ideals of development by focusing on local community knowledge and support to revitalize a depressed economy (Potter et. al 2012). Because my nation, as former colony, would likely be suffering from a severely fractured cultural identity, creating economic policy based on local needs would help facilitate the repair of cultural identity while focusing economics on s smaller-scale. This would be accomplished with the maintenance of government-supported social services and institutions. I would mea sure this economic dimension of development by monitoring my nations GDP, GNP, household income, and tax revenues. While the economy is certainly an important dimension of new development, others are equally as important. A few that I would intensely and immediately focus on would be education, infrastructure, healthcare, and sustainable cities. I would utilize government spending and stable structure with proper representation from local citizens in order to create an education system and transportation/utility infrastructure. I would likely use taxes to fund these endeavors. I would measure the growth of these sectors by monitoring graduation statistics and public health and safety statistics (Stasczak 2015). Another important dimension of development in my new nation would be the creation of sustainable urban centers. With the impeding threat of climate change and urban migration rates, creating carefully planned, sustainable cities is incredibly important. I plan to measure the carbon output of my cities in order to gain an understanding of how sustainable and environmentally healthy they are . Healthcare is another dimension of development that is crucial to the success of my nation. A healthcare system must be inclusive of all populations and provide immediate access. I would create a single-payer healthcare system, which is currently used in Singapore. Single-Payer healthcare is a system in which the state, rather than private insurers, pays for all healthcare costs, and assess healthcare standards though federal regulations(Akerman et. al 2015). I feel this would be the most equal system of healthcare delivery, as it provides fair access to impoverished and rural communities. Another fact of my nations economic development that would need to immediately be addressed would be currency creation and exchange rates. Staszczak (2015) notes that politicalinstability in developing nations can often perpetuate for decades due to the fact that currency has very low value in global market. Therefore, my nation would need to enter to global market swiftly and establish itself i n order to maintain a valuable, stable currency. This would be incredibly difficult to accomplish in tandem with every other immediate development factor I would need to address. However, with the creation of inclusive policy, my efforts would be more likely to succeed. Some inclusive projects I could incentivize could be local agriculture, education accessible to rural citizens, and facilitating local arts. This helps create a common national identity that is separate from a colonial identity, aiding in national unity. CITATIONS OF NON-CLASS SOURCES: Akerman, A., Naghavi, A., Seim, A. (2016). OLIGARCHIES AND DEVELOPMENT IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY: A TALE OF TWO ELITES. Economic Inquiry, 54(1), 229-246. doi:10.1111/ecin.12284 Lansing, R. (1907). Notes on Sovereignty in a State. The American Journal of International Law, 1(2), 297-320. STASZCZAK, D. E. (2015). Global instability of currencies: reasons and perspectives according to the state-corporation hegemonic stability theory. Brazilian Journal Of Political Economy / Revista De Economia PolÃ tica, 35(1), 175-198.