Saturday, April 13, 2019
Ulysses And Tennysons Narrative Techniques Essay Example for Free
Ulysses And Tennysons Narrative Techniques EssayA Look again at Ulysses and economise ab proscribed Tennysons narrative techniquesIn Ulysses, Tennyson presents the geekistics and attitudes of the eponymous central credit by dint of the dynamic form of the outstanding monologue. Through an adroit bl shutting of literary techniques including those of structure, form and language, he seeks to clarify a lot of the mystique back tooth the mythic backg musical rhythm of Ulysses, and reveal his persona of desire and heroism, alongside his undesirable traits of contemptuousness and hubristic pride.Throughout the rime, its form and structure abide Tennyson to reveal the source of Ulysses as he regardes him to be acquainted. Ulysses takes the form of the dramatic monologue, with Tennyson adapting the persona of his mythical subject and using this form to reveal Ulysses source through his admit words. This choice of form, combined with the structural implement of unrhymed iambic pentameter, or blank verse, in allows the meter to adopt a rhythm that is one of the adpressed imitators of human speech in verse.This makes the words that Tennyson, writes and Ulysses speaks take on a much more than privateised tone and a deeper meaning, fully disclosing his pillow slip and attitude in a way that a more artificial and structured form, for example the Spenserian, simply could non achieve. This effect is added to the by the colossal and contrasted uses of enjambment and caesurae, raise imitating the depth and sincerity of speech rhythms, examples being The long day wanes The slow moon climbs the deep/Moans round with more voices, the listed pauses of wanes and climbs accentuating the sl induceess of the day and moon, and the enjambment through the deep stressing the sure profundity of said deep.Furthermore, the extensive use of enjambment allies with the al-Qaidas of endeavour to an excessive, roughly unattainably foolish level, the line beyond t he utmost(a) frame in of human thought exemplifying this, the poem runs on to the excess of Ulysses mind. Finally, the balance between lines and theme is also important- twenty-six lines go on the zeal of Ulysses fore handout geographic expeditions, and a further twenty-six go on his hopes, fears and attitudes for and towards the future.In contrast, he spends only el yet lines on his government and accountability, and quarter spare alone a single bitter indictment, aged wife for the forever faithful Penelope. This structure echoes the theme of responsibility against detachment- Ulysses excessive description of himself and the fleeting mention of his subjects illustrates his abdication of responsibility and the egocentric nature of his character, although this could be pass judgment from a great classical king. It also exemplifies the excessiveness of Ulysses ambition, an excess that as the monologue progresses, can be seen to expand to encompass the boundaries of the fooli sh, the detrimental and the unattainable.However as in much of his verse, the main techniques that Tennyson uses to portray the ideas and themes of Ulysses character are those of imagery and language. This is especially evident through the contrasting imagery and rhythm of his description of his sight against his adventures. The initial imagery of the poem, of an idle king, and the needy crags of his kingdom of Ithica, sets up a tone of mo nonony, suggesting Ulysses lack of pettishness or feeling for his duties and who unto his duties are performed. This takes an new(prenominal) level with his description of his own people, Unequal laws unto a blare race, /That hoard, and sleep, and feed, and know not me. This description shows his contempt and lack of gentleness for his people, as they are given a primitive, uneducated character as fence to his own illustrious nature that is revealed throughout the poem.Furthermore, the lack of all the alike(p) a personal pronoun, that ins tead of who, for example, furthers the distance between him and his people, the idea of detachment being inverted in conjunction with that of responsibility. The final nature of this point is in its structure- the monosyllabic, strong and harsh beats of hoard, and sleep, and feed portray the tedium that Ulysses sees himself to rule. This contrasts directly with the opening descriptions of Ulysses own character, and his views and memories of his past adventures.He states, I cannot rest from travel I will drink/Life to the lees, with the enjambment through the two lines portraying the excess and the metaphorical pulmonary tuberculosis of the lees that he strives to reach- the words could also suggest a curse however, with the extent such that as he consumes so much of purport, he will inevitably take in the less desirable and the forbid aspects. This consumption imagery is hided with For always roaming with a hungry heart/Much I claim seen and known cities of men/And manners, cli mates, councils, governments, the listed monosyllables now highlighting how far he has gone, preferably than the extent of his contempt in the previous usage- this highlighting the contrasting areas of Ulysses character.Tennyson also employs the technique of antithesis to highlight the extent of Ulysses zeal for travel, and to show that this whitethorn reach the realms of foolishness, introducing the idea of the glamour of the unattainable. He states All condemnations I deliver enjoyed/Greatly, film suffered greatly, two with those/That loved me, and alone, the use of antithesis in the images and the enjambment of the lines combining to highlights Ulysses powerful, almost excessive desire for travel- the excess continues through the drunk delight of battle, as he metaphorically revels in the bitterness of war to the extent that it is almost an addiction of the mind, to the extent that he has become a name. This can be interpreted in many ways- he could be known world over for his great journeys, or left simply as a shadow of a man, with just the superficiality of a name to back up his previous greatness, his involvement with a part of all that I sire met.He then moves on to remonstrate of celestial imagery filled with gravitas- Yet all experience is an arch wherethro/Gleams that untravlld world, whose margin fades/For ever and ever when I move, the enjambment of the lines highlighting the fading of the arch, as if he will never be satisfied, that the unattainable is the most desirable. This continues to the extent of To follow knowledge like a sinking lead-in,/Beyond the utmost bound of human thought, the simile of celestial permanence being set against its own sinking possibly reveal an acceptance of his plausibly misguided nature, and the exaggeration of utmost bound of human thought showing the foolishness in his wants, or simply highlighting the zealous heroism that runs throughout the poem.The tone of the imagery changes upon his honorable me ntion to Telemachus- his son who will inherit his title of King. He describes him as blameless and decent not to fail, ending the reference to his son with He works his work, I exploit. This shallow praise highlights a caring for his son, exactly more interestingly reintroduces his contempt and condescension towards his responsibilities- the final patronising and heavily accented I mine implying a scornful attitude towards the insignificant duties that he considers Kingship to be. These descriptive epithets of Telemachus, blameless, discerning, are spoken with an institutionalise of stolidity bordering on malicious contempt, and become ironic through Ulysses own abdication of job, though this does not have the effect of removing the depraved tone. The shortening of the lines when referring to Telemachus also relate to his attitude through structure- the zeal of the enjambment and fleshed out lines of his memories (and future plans further on in the monologue) is replaced by sho rt, sharp lines, as if they are confined, as opposed to the free flowing, almost liberated verse of his memories.As the tone changes with thoughts of the future, he talks of his trusted mariners, those who have Toild, and wrought, and thought with me, the use of thought over fought being an interesting idea, possibly highlighting Ulysses earlier clever superiority over his savage race. He then moves on to talk of death and its consequences- Death closes all but some(prenominal)thing ere the end,/Some work of noble note, may yet be done, his acceptance of deaths reality juxtaposed against his overwhelming zeal for exploration heightening the sense of purpose to a possible extent of foolishness.This is furthered by lines like It may be that we shall touch the Happy Isles/ One equal temper of heroic police van/Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will, the idea of the acceptance of time and fate being more powerful than himself removing the previous hubristic tone that accompan ied his words. The final line, To strive, to seek, to find and not to yield, exemplifies all that is revealed about Ulysses in the monologue- he will endure to the end, whether or not if it is the right, or even most rational course of action- his desire will conquer all, as much as he accepts that ultimately, death has the same enduring power.In conclusion, Tennyson uses many literary devices to portray the nature and attitudes of the mythological character of Ulysses. Through artfully blending technically adept poetic devices against the purest echo of human speech, he reveals the multi faceted character of Ulysses through his words, allowing the reader to fully understand the motives behind Ulysses manifestly limitless ambition, and the more gloomy power that this ambition can hold to the detriment of the individual- a powerful message to society, as strong as an exploration of one of the most remarkable characters of mythology.B How far do you agree that the character of Ulys ses is far from heroic?Tennysons dramatic monologue, Ulysses has been subjected to many literary explanations since its first drafting in 1833, just weeks later on the death of Tennysons closest friend, Hallam. One of the most debated points is on the nature of Ulysses character in relation to heroism, and whether he is the typically zealous and gallant mythological king, or a misguided and erroneously nave individual, who compulsively seeks the unattainable alongside a malicious contempt for those for who he should hold responsibility. Of course, the concept of heroism is not the only interpretation of the character of Ulysses that has been presented- ideas of responsibility and of social symbolism have also been tack together forward.always since its publishing, literary critics have understood Ulysses to have the underlying theme of heroism with it, and one of the secondary interpretations of this is that the character of Ulysses is in fact far from heroic. Chiasson states th at Ulysses is a type of human being who held a set of ideas which . . . are poisonous of the whole fabric of his society, suggesting that he was not in fact a hero, but someone with no comprehension of responsibility for his people, to the extent of selfish desire over support of his people. This is exemplified by the words of the poem, where he describes his people as a savage race, who hoard, and sleep, and feed, and know not me, highlighting the arrogance and superiority that he feels for over his people, and his subsequent contempt of lifes duties.This is furthered by the virile condescension of his description of his son, blameless and discerning, culminating in He works his work, I mine, highlighting the lack of heroism in his selfish actions of pursuing his aspirations of travel and excess, rather than the basic humanitarian needs of his people. A secondary idea about his lack of heroism is the air of misguided, unattainable desires that permeates some of the description of his character. His desire to To follow knowledge like a sinking star/Beyond the utmost bound of human thought has a sense of foolishness and excess upon practice session it, as if it is too far, as if the heroism of the character is being overtaken by this cursed drunk delight- by convention a true hero would know when to stop, yet many of the greatest heroes have had their own hubristic, tragic flaws- perhaps this unfitness to recognise the boundaries of the gleaming arch is the one that can be put alongside Ulysses.As a tertiary interpretation of a lack of heroism, the closing parts of the poem can be seen to take on a tone of acceptance, almost a suicidal wish for release juxtaposed against the powerfully stirring rhetoric that undercuts the entire poem. Critics have agreed with this interpretation in the past- McCulloch describing the masterly, inspirational oratory of the closing lines of this poem with a recognition that what it encourages is reckless and suicidal, and Buckle y has the interpretation that Ulysses does not have a complete will to go forward . . . but a determined retreat, a yearning, behind allegedly tired rhythms, to join the great Achilles (or possibly Arthur Hallam) in an Elysian retreat from lifes vexations.The context of the poem, create verbally just after Hallams death certainly complements this interpretation, with the suggestion of Tennyson wishing to regress from the trials of life into a jar in memory of his friend, and the words of the poem We may touch the Happy Isles and Death closes all also reflect this interpretation. Therefore the monologue does present a case for Ulysses character to be described as far from heroic, as if he is a symbol of naivety and endless greed, disinterested and indifferent to those who it is his duty to serve.However, alongside the presentation of Ulysses being far from heroic, the idea that Ulysses is indeed heroic immediately comes into focus. The images of consumption premature in the poem c ould suggest a dangerous addiction to his adventure, but equally could suggest the admirable quality of taking life with both hands and throwing himself into experience, I will drink life to the lees and I have enjoyd/Greatly, and have suffered greatly, the juxtaposed ideas heightening the sense of depth that Ulysses goes to as he fully experiences life, and how his seemingly limitless ambition could, or should be an example to the readers, the savage race. This can be applied to much more of the poem- his views on life itself can be extended to heroism. He states that How dull it is to pause/As if to breathe were life, as if he is advocating the proactive approach to life, that pausing turns life to a mere existence- possibly let loose a secondary attitude of Tennyson to Hallams death, that he in fact moldiness go on to continue is own life, instead of fading into a mere existence.Furthermore, much of the hyperbolic imagery of the monologue, the ideas of utmost boundary and gleam ing arches could exemplify the glamour and beauty of heroism, which for many of the straightlaced people was what Ulysses represented, a revolt against the bourgeoisie imposed laws of monontony, to simply hoard, and sleep, and feed. Finally, the acceptance of deaths implications and meaning in the closing lines of the poem could represent an intelligent heroism, as if Ulysses is a true hero, knowing that he cannot go on forever, not now that strength that in old days/Moved earth and heaven, his acceptance that there is a limit showing compassion for those who accompany him, and the idea of to strive, to seek, and not to yield adding to the never-say-die attitude of a hero.A secondary interpretation of the final line is its supposed irony underneath its resoluteness, made relevant to the similar attitude of friction match in Miltons Paradise Lost, never to submit or yield, going back to the perception of Ulysses as an anti-hero of his own resolve. James D. Kissane addresses this i dea of a heroism in both sides of his character with desire to escape the thudding present . . . but it is after all the counter-melody to the main theme, a negative emotion which an affirmative must transcend. Thus the mood of Ulysses is resolute though rooted in a sense of weakness as well as strength.As well as the ever-present idea of heroism, there are other interpretations of the dramatic monologue, and one of these is that of social responsibility, and its contrast with detachment from the vagaries of this and life, a similar theme to that presented in The gentlewoman of Shalott. Ulysses is seen throughout the poem to want to escape from his own, enforced reality of Kingship, which is seen through his description of his land barren crags, and his people a savage race.This is in contrast with for example, the Lady of Shalott, who while not in true contact with life, has a suppressed desire to be within it- what Ulysses sees as life is the complete antithesis of what his lif e was set out to be, and hence this creates a juxtaposition of his personality and adventure against his feelings for his people. This is highlighted with the contrast of the imagery to a higher place with his glamorous desires and memories, examples including Gleams that untravlld world and Drunk delight of battle with my peers, accentuating Ulysses lack of concern for his people, but at the same time showing that despite his egotism, his desires for experience and life are ones that can be admired, and could even be seen by him to be his example to his people, that they should know him rather than know(ing) not me- it does also however suggest his inability to look back on and be satisfied with his lot- he can only look for more.A final interpretation of the poem is how it fits in with Tennysons own attitudes, and how he could be seen as symbolic to the Victorian people. The poem was of course written shortly after Hallams death, and as a result numerous conclusions can be drawn as to how the poem relates to Tennyson, and how he sees himself through the persona he adopts. The idea of the poem being an exercise in catharsis for Tennyson is certainly relevant, and one of the attitudes that can be portrayed is that of a desire to go forward from Hallams death, as Charles Tennyson put it in his 1849 biography, Tennyson expressed his realization of the need for going forward and braving the battle of life, in spite of the crushing blow of Arthurs A. Henry Hallams death- this is highlighted in Ulysses desire for exploration and experience, I will drink life to the lees.A second idea is that of Tennyson wishing to regress into a stupor of death, as the resigned and almost suicidal air of the closing lines of the monologue indicates, to an extent, an example being It may be that the gulfs will wash us down,/It may be that we will touch the Happy Isles, as if he wishes to join Hallam in the Happy comfort of death. As effectively explained by Thomson, the poem could be recognizably the product of internal debate, suggesting that Tennysons confusion over his own reaction to Hallams death comes out in the two sides to Ulysses attitude to adventure in the poem itself. Finally, the closing line, To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield came to be a symbol for the people of the Victorian age, a symbol of proactivity and change that they could fully relate to, ironically in contrast to the receptors of Ulysses in the monologue itself, his savage race.In conclusion, I agree that the character of Ulysses is far from heroic. His contemptuousness in terms of his people, combined with the overly hubristic and foolish desires upon the greatest of knowledge shows him to be an egocentrically misguided character, despite some of the qualities portrayed by Tennyson seeming, and being admirable. However, on a grander scale I feel that he character of Ulysses is more driven by Tennysons feelings than the individual portrayed in Homers Odyssey and Dantes Inf erno, with the character representing more than anything the deeply personal and highly conflicting emotion of grief.